Spektivblick
Dominik Eulberg, mit allem was dazugehört.


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Der Marienkäfer

     Eingetragen am
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September 10th, 2014
von Eulbergs Heimische Gefilde

marienkaefer

Dieser halbkugelige Käfer ist einer der größten Sympathieträger unserer heimischen Fauna: der Marienkäfer. In Europa gibt es etwa 250 verschiedene Marienkäferarten. Der Siebenpunkt-Marienkäfer ist in unseren Breiten ihr häufigster Vertreter. Er verdankte seine orangerote Färbung Lycopin, welches auch Tomaten rot färbt und und α- und β-Carotin, die auch für die Farbgebung der meisten anderen Arten wichtig sind. Nicht nur bei Kindern ist er beliebt. In vielen Kulturen gilt die sieben als Glückszahl, weshalb der Siebenpunkt-Marienkäfer als Glücksbringer angesehen wird. Zudem galten Marienkäfer als geheiligte Tiere der Freya, der germanischen Göttin der Liebe und Fruchtbarkeit. Der Name Marienkäfer leitet sich aber von der heiligen Jungfrau Maria ab. Denn früher glaubten die Bauern, die Käfer wären in ihrem Auftrag in der Schädlingsvertilgung tätig. In den letzten Jahren wird der hiesige Marienkäfer zunehmend von dem asiatischen Marienkäfer verdrängt, der als neue Art bei uns heimisch geworden ist. Trotz asiatischer Konkurrenz kommt der alteingesessene Siebenpunkt aber weiterhin häufig vor.

Das Charakteristische an den Marienkäfern sind die symmetrisch angeordneten Punkte auf ihren Flügeldecken. Sie sind meist schwarz, es gibt aber auch Käfer, die helle, rote oder braune Punkte tragen, wobei Arten mit 2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22 und 24 Punkten vorkommen. Die Anzahl der Punkte gibt entgegen einem weit verbreiteten Irrtum nicht das Alter des Käfers an, vielmehr ist die Zahl der Punkte für jede Art genetisch festgelegt und ändert sich während des Lebens des Käfers nicht! Dieselbe Art kann in Unmengen Farb- und Mustervarianten auftreten, was ihre Bestimmung erschwert. Der Luzerne Marienkäfer etwa, erreicht über 4000 gezählte Varianten. Der Zweipunkt-Marienkäfer ist mal rot mit schwarzen Punkten, mal schwarz mit roten Punkten und auch manchmal ganz schwarz ohne Punkte.

Durch Hohlräume unter den Flügeldecken können Marienkäfer auf Wasser schwimmen und gehen nicht unter. Die Antennen sind kurz, mit kräftigen Keulen. Wie viele sicherlich schon selber erfahren haben, stellen sich Marienkäfer bei Bedrohung tot und sondern eine gelbe Flüssigkeit ab, zum Beispiel wenn man sie auf die Hand nimmt. Die gelbliche Flüssigkeit ist Hämolymphe und damit das, was bei uns das Blut bildet. Diese Körperflüssigkeit der Marienkäfer ist sehr bitter, weshalb sie sich sehr gut zur Feindabwehr eignet. Über die Poren der Gelenkhäute der Beine können sie diese gelbliche Flüssigkeit absondern, die Fressfeinde wie Ameisen fernhält. In Kombination mit der roten Farbe entsteht so ein sehr starkes Warnsignal. Frisst also beispielsweise ein Vogel einen Marienkäfer, verbindet er in der Folge den bitteren Geschmack mit der roten Farbe und meidet danach Marienkäfer. Aber auch in deutschen Weinbaugebieten hat man sich längere Zeit vor dem Marienkäfer gefürchtet. So wurde beobachtet wie sie Weintrauben anfraßen. Daher bestand die Sorge, die Hämolymphe würde den Geschmack des Weines verderben. Doch eine genauere Untersuchung zeigte, dass für den Geschmack des Weins keine Gefahr besteht. Im Gegenteil der Marienkäfer erweist sich als vorteilhafter Gegenspieler für Schädlinge wie Blattlaus, Schildlaus, Mehlige Apfelblattlaus oder Hopfenlaus. Denn Marienkäfer ernähren sich typischerweise von Blattläusen und von deren Larven. Etwa 100 Blattläuse am Tag kann ein Marienkäfer vertilgen. Insbesondere der Siebenpunkt-Marienkäfer ist daher ein guter Freund jeden Gärtners und wird gar für die biologische Schädlingsbekämpfung gezüchtet.

Marienkäfer und vor allem ihre Larven sind auch Kannibalen. Besonders bei Massenauftreten fressen sich die Tiere gegenseitig. Die zuerst schlüpfenden Larven fressen regelmäßig ihre noch nicht geschlüpften Artgenossen, wodurch oft über die Hälfte der Eier verloren gehen.  Als natürliche Feinde des Marienkäfers gelten Parasiten und Ameisen. Einige Arten der Marienkäfer haben einen besonderen, nur auf sie spezialisierten Feind, die Marienkäfer-Brackwespe. Mit ihrem Legeapparat legt die Brackwespe dem Käfer ein Ei unter die Deckflügel. Die geschlüpfte Larve ernährt sich zunächst nur von den Körpersäften und vom Fettgewebe des Käfers, um in ihm parasitär heranzuwachsen. Sie überwintert sogar mit ihm und tötet ihn erst im darauf folgenden Frühling, indem sie seine lebenswichtigen Organe frisst. Danach bricht sie durch die Hülle und verpuppt sich unter dem verendeten Käfer. Zudem fallen Marienkäfer trotz ihrer roten Warnfarbe und ihres bitteren Geschmacks immer wieder Fröschen, Spitzmäusen, Spinnen, Reptilien und Vögeln zum Opfer.

Nach der Überwinterung beginnen die Marienkäferpaare mit der Kopulation. Diese kann auch mal bis zu 18 Stunden dauern. Ein Mal würde zwar genügen, um das Weibchen zu befruchten, aber meist findet die Begattung mehrfach statt, häufig auch von unterschiedlichen Männchen. Nach der Befruchtung legen die Weibchen um die 400 Eier an Zweigen oder Blattunterseiten ab. Hierbei achten sie darauf, dass immer unterschiedliche Standorte gewählt werden, damit die Chance erhöht ist, dass mindestens ein Gelege unentdeckt bleibt. Etwa eine Woche später schlüpfen die bereits gefleckten und gut beweglichen Larven, die sich von riesigen Mengen an Pflanzenläusen und Spinnenmilben ernähren. Bis zu 3000 davon, haben Wissenschaftler gezählt, vertilgen sie in ihrem Larvendasein. Bei den größeren Arten wie dem Siebenpunkt-Marienkäfer sind die Larven erst ganz schwarz und absolvieren dann mehrere Häutungen zu grau mit gelben oder orangen Punkten. Wenn die Larven genügend Blattläuse gefressen haben, etwa nach 3 bis 6 Wochen, verpuppen sie sich und hängen dann mit dem Kopf nach unten unter einem Blatt. Etwa zwei Wochen später schlüpfen dann die jungen Marienkäfer. Die jeweils typische Färbung entwickelt sich aber erst nach einigen Stunden nach dem Schlüpfen, wenn sich die Flügeldecken ausgehärtet haben. Pro Jahr entstehen so zwei Generationen an Marienkäfern.

Marienkäfer sind wechselwarme Tiere, das heißt ihre Körpertemperatur wird maßgeblich durch Sonnenwärme bestimmt. Im Winter benötigen sie daher auch einen Platz zum überwintern. Auf der Suche nach einem geeigneten Ort sieht man sie häufig im Herbst auch in Massen an Hauswänden. Meistens begeben sich die Schwärme aber unter Baumrinden, Blättern, Moos oder Felsspalten in die Winterstarre. Damit sie dabei nicht einfrieren, verfügen sie wie auch einige andere Insekten über körpereigene Frostschutzmittel. Im Frühjahr kommen sie mit den ersten warmen Sonnenstrahlen wieder hervorgekrochen.

Der Marienkäfer wird wegen seiner Nützlichkeit geschätzt und gilt als Glückssymbol. Deshalb ist er ein beliebtes Motiv auf Glückwunschkarten, Briefmarken und in der Kunst. Auch kulturhistorisch hat er seine Spuren hinterlassen: In der Provence etwa steht einem Mann die Heirat bevor, sollte ein Käfer auf ihm landen. Sind die Frauen ungeduldig, setzen sie einen Käfer auf den Zeigefinger und zählen die Sekunden bis zum Abflug. Jede Sekunde bedeutet ein Jahr warten bis zur Hochzeit. Auf Grund seiner Beliebtheit, seiner Häufigkeit und seines markanten Aussehens gibt es über 1500 regionale Bezeichnungen für den Marienkäfer wie zum Beispiel Muttergotteskäfer, Herrgottswürmchen, Jesuskäferlein, Glückskäferle oder Himmelmietzchen. Den wohl ältesten Beleg als Glückssymbol bietet ein etwa 20.000 Jahre alter, 1,5 cm großer aus Mammutelfenbein geschnitzter Marienkäfer, der durch eine Bohrung wahrscheinlich mit einer Schnur um den Hals getragen wurde. Er wurde in Laugerie-Basse im Südwesten Frankreichs gefunden.


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Oktober 28th, 2013
von Eulbergs Heimische Gefilde

Er ist der „König der Nacht“: Der UUhuhu. Der Uhu ist die größte Eulenart der Erde und wird bis zu 70 Zentimeter groß, bei einer imposanten Flügelspannweite von bis zu 1,70 Meter. Weibchen werden bis zu drei Kilogramm schwer, die Männchen sind etwas leichter. Sein Gefieder ist zur Tarnung in hellen und dunklen Brauntönen längs oder quer gemustert. Der Uhu besitzt sogenannte Federohren die meist schräg nach oben ab abstehen. Sie werden anders als man erwarten könnte, nicht zum Hören verwendet, sondern dienen ebenfalls der Tarnung und zusätzlich der Kommunikation. Ruht der Uhu auf einem Ast stellt er die Federohren auf, beobachtet er aufmerksam ein Beutetier werden sie nach unten eingeklappt.

Die tatsächlichen Ohren liegen seitlich am Gesichtsschleier, versteckt unter dem Gefieder. Als Gesichtsschleier bezeichnet man die um die Augen kreisförmig angeordneten Federn, die zum Sammeln und zur Verstärkung des Schalls dienen. Die schlitzartigen Ohren befinden sich an diesem Gesichtsschleier, allerdings nicht wie bei uns symmetrisch auf einer Höhe, sondern versetzt angeordnet: Die rechte Ohröffnung liegt etwas höher als die linke. Dadurch trifft der Schall zeitverzögert an beiden Ohren auf. Aus diesem Zeitunterschied kann der Uhu sehr genau den Aufenthaltsort seiner Beute wahrnehmen, selbst in absoluter Dunkelheit kann er seine Beute so räumlich Orten. Im hohen Frequenzbereich ist die Empfindlichkeit des Uhu-Gehörs besonders stark ausgeprägt. Deshalb können Uhus eine Maus selbst noch unter einem halben Meter Schnee rascheln hören.

Ein weiteres Erkennungsmerkmal sind die großen Augen und die orange gefärbte Iris. Mit seinen Augen nimmt der Uhu die Welt anders wahr als wir: Er besitzt auf seiner Netzhaut viele Sehzellen für die Hell-Dunkel-Wahrnehmung, aber kaum Rezeptoren fürs Farbsehen. Daher sieht seine Welt vorwiegend schwarz-weiß aus. Dafür sind seine Auge aber auch viel lichtempfindlicher als die des Menschen. So kann er auch bei schlechten Lichtverhältnissen auf Beuteflug gehen. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Vögeln sitzen die Augen von Eulen nicht seitlich am Kopf, sondern schauen nach vorne. Typisch für Eulen kann auch der Uhu seine Augäpfel nicht bewegen. Dies gleicht er jedoch dadurch aus, dass er seine Halswirbelsäule in bemerkenswerterweise bewegen kann: So kann der Kopf bis zu 270 Grad gedreht werden. Dieser Fähigkeit liegen vierzehn Halswirbel zugrunde, üblicherweise haben Wirbeltiere nur sieben Halswirbel.

Die Federn des Uhus sind sehr weich und haben ausgefranste Kanten. Dadurch bilden sich statt einem großen, ganz viele kleine Luftströme beim Flügelschlag. So werden Fluggeräusche abgedämpft, weshalb der Uhus fast geräuschlos fliegen kann. Obwohl der Uhu einige Merkmale mit den Greifvögeln teilt, ist er mit ihnen nicht unmittelbar verwandt. Er hat zwar ebenfalls scharfe Krallen, Hakenschnabel und eine ähnliche Jagdweise wie etwa ein Adler oder Falke, jagt aber im Gegensatz zu diesen in der Nacht. Außerdem hat er anders als Greifvögel eine Wendezehe: Eine seiner vier langen Zehen kann sowohl nach vorne als auch nach hinten gedreht werden. So kann der Uhu mit zwei Zehen vorne und zwei hinten sicher auf einem Ast sitzen. Mit den Krallen kann er außerdem seine Beute packen. Die Beine des Uhus sind bis zu den Zehen stark gefiedert.

Das Verbreitungsgebiet der Uhus reicht von Europa über Nordafrika bis Asien. Der heimische Bestand wird auf ca. 800 Brutpaare geschätzt. Obwohl der Uhu kaum natürliche Feinde hat, steht er auf der Roten Liste der bedrohten Tierarten. In den 70er Jahren war sein Bestand auf 20 Brutpaare geschrumpft. Zum einen durch vom Menschen verursachte Veränderung seines Lebensraum und durch Bejagung. Denn der Uhu galt lange als Schädling. Stromleitungen und Verkehr stellen bis heute eine häufige Todesursache dar. Dank gezielter Schutzprogramme kommt der Uhu jedoch wieder fast bundesweit vor.

Der Uhu ist standorttreu, das heißt, er nimmt in seinem Leben keine großen Wanderungen vor. Selbst die Jungvögel wandern meist nur 50 bis 80 km ab. Der Uhu jagt am liebsten in offenen, reich strukturierten Landschaften. Ein Mosaik aus Wäldern, Felsen, Wiesen und landwirtschaftlichem Flachland stellt für ihn den perfekten Lebensraum dar. Felsen werden als Brutstätte bevorzugt. Die Paarbildung findet in der Herbstbalz im Oktober und November statt. Die eigentliche Balz beginnt allerdings im Januar. Der Name Uhu (lat. Bubo bubo) leitet sich von den typischen Balzrufen ab. Während das Männchen ein „bu-hoo“ singt, antwortet das Weibchen mit einem „uh-ju“. Häufig rufen auch Weibchen und Männchen nach der Paarbildung im Duett um ihr Revier abzustecken. Bruten erfolgen zwischen Februar und März. Hierzu werden keine Nester gebaut, sondern die Eier auf nacktes Gestein gelegt. Die Bebrütung dauert 34 Tage, nach der normalerweise ein bis drei Jungvögel schlüpfen. Mit vier bis fünf Wochen verlassen die Jungtiere das „Nest“, mit etwa zehn Wochen sind sie jedoch erst flugfähig. Trotz regelmäßigem Ausfliegen sind die Jungvögel erst nach vier bis fünf Monaten in der Lage, sich selbst zu versorgen.

Der Uhu ist ein nächtlicher Jäger mit vielseitiger Beute und Jagdweise. Zum einen jagt er vom Ansitz aus, das heißt er wartet meist auf einem Ast oder Felsen, bis er ein Beutetier sieht, oder er jagt in niedrigem Pirschflug lautlos in offener Landschaft dicht oberhalb des Erdbodens. Um die Beute zu greifen, wird der Flug kurz vor der anvisierten Nahrung abgebremst und die Beine mit gespreizten Zehen nach vorne ausgestreckt. Anschließend wird die Beute mit einem Biss getötet. Dabei reicht das Beutespektrum von Insekten über Fröschen bis hin zu größeren Säugetieren wie Rehkitzen, Hasen und Füchsen. Die häufigste Nahrung sind Mäuse, Ratten und Igel. In Wipfelhöhe der Bäume jagt er auch andere Vögel mit teils sehr hohen Fluggeschwindigkeiten. So holt er Raben, Krähen, Tauben oder auch kleinere Eulenarten im Flug ein. Auch Aas steht auf seinem Ernährungsplan. Uhus haben keinen Kropf und ihr Magensaft enthält zur Verdauung nur wenig Salzsäure bereit. Daher werden unverdauliche Bestandteile der Beute wie Knochen, Haare und Federn als Gewölle ausgespuckt.

Tagsüber verhält sich der Uhu eher ruhig: entspannt döst er auf Ästen und vertraut auf seine Tarnung. Wird ein Uhu aber von anderen Vögeln trotz Tarnung erkannt, reagieren diese mit Aggressionsverhalten, dem sogenannten „Hassen“. Dabei versammeln sich nicht selten mehrere potentielle Beutevögel des Uhus in seiner Nähe und versuchen ihn durch lautes Rufen und angedeuteten Angriffen zu verscheuchen. Dieses Verhalten seiner „Hasser“  brachte dem Uhu früher auch den etwas sarkastischen Namen „Großherzog“ ein. Der Uhu nimmt dann eine imposante Drohhaltung ein: Durch Absträuben der Federn macht er sich groß und legt die Flügel zu einem schildartigen Kranz zusammen. Außerdem wiegt er sich auf und ab und faucht, um seine Angreifer zu verscheuchen. Bemerkt der Uhu den Widersacher zuerst, nimmt er eine Tarnstellung ein, in dem er seine Federohren und seinen Körper maximal aufrichtet, sein Gefieder anlegt und die Augen eng geschlossen hält, um wie ein Baumstumpf auszusehen.

Nur die Junguhus sind ernsthaft durch Fressfeinde wie Füchse und Marder gefährdet, die die Jungvögel bei ihren ersten Sprung- und Flugversuchen erwischen können. Die Sterblichkeitsrate der Junguhus liegt im ersten Lebensjahr bei 70 Prozent. Überwinden die Uhus diese kritische Phase können sie ein beachtliches Alter erreichen. Dass durch Beringung als maximales Alter in freier Wildbahn festgestellte Alter beträgt 27 Jahre. In Genfangschaft liegt der Rekord bei stolzen 68 Jahren.


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Rotwild

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Juni 17th, 2014
von Eulbergs Heimische Gefilde

rothirsche Der Rothirsch ist das größte einheimische Wildtier. Ein erwachsener Hirsch eine Schulterhöhe von etwa anderthalb Metern, eine Länge von zwei Metern und wiegt bis zu 250 Kilogramm. Die weiblichen Rothirsche, die Hirschkühe, sind 10 bis 15 Prozent kleiner und wiegen nur etwa 120 Kilogramm. Ein Weibchen, das bereits „gesetzt“ (geworfen) hat, wird als Alttier bezeichnet. Der männliche Hirsch ist im Alter von sieben Jahren ausgewachsen. Da die Weibchen kein Geweih tragen, werden sie auch als „Kahlwild“ bezeichnet. Die stattlichen Männchen erkennt man außer an ihrem Geweih auch gut an der massiven Brust, dem kräftigen Hals und einer buschigen Mähne. Seinen Namen verdankt das Rotwild seinem im Sommer rötlich-braunen Fell, welches sich im Winter dunkelbraun bis grau färbt.

Die Entwicklung des Geweihs beginnt bei den männlichen Kälbern im ersten Lebensjahr zunächst in Form eines sogenannten „Rosenstocks“. Das sind knochige Stirnbeinfortsätze in Form zweier kleinen Höcker, aus denen sich im Laufe des Sommers noch unverzweigte Geweihstangen bilden. Man nennt diese jungen Hirsche dann auch „Spießer“. Dieses Erstlingsgeweih wird im darauf folgenden Frühjahr abgeworfen. Das darauf folgende Geweih hat bereits eine erste Gabelung. Die Endenzahl der Geweihe nimmt dann mit den Jahren zu. Als ein „Ende“ bezeichnet ein Jäger eine Verzweigung des Geweihs, die so deutlich ausgeprägt ist, dass er hieran einen Hut aufhängen könnte. Die Größe des Geweihs verrät etwas über den Gesundheitszustand und das Alter des Tieres. Denn unter guten Bedingungen nimmt sowohl die Länge der Geweihstangen als auch die Endenzahl bis etwa zum zwölften Lebensjahr zu. Ein ausdefiniertes Geweih besteht dann aus Rosenstock, Augspross, Eisspross, Mittelspross und der mehrfach verzweigten Krone. So können ältere Hirsche über 20 Enden am Geweih aufweisen. Dabei zählt der Jäger die Enden jeder Stange. Sind sie auf beiden Seiten gleich, etwa 8, ist es ein gerader 16-Ender. Sind an einer Stanger weniger als 8, auch wenn es nur etwa 5 sind, ist es immer noch ein 16-Ender, nur ein ungerader 16-Ender. Jägerisches Prahlgehabe…

Solange das Geweih noch wächst ist es von einer beharrten Haut, dem sogenannten Bast überzogen. Dieser ist gut durchblutet und  bewirkt den entsprechenden Baustofftransport. Die Neubildung eines Geweihs dauert in der Regel etwa 5 Monate, bis zu 15 Kilogramm Knochenmasse werden hierbei gebildet. Sobald das Geweih im Juli oder August ausgewachsen ist wird der Bast an Sträuchern und Bäumen abgestreift, was im Fachjargon als „fegen“ bezeichnet wird. Das Geweih der Männchen wird dann abhängig vom Alter im Februar oder auch erst im April wieder abgeworfen. Ein frisch gefegtes Geweih ist sehr hell, erst in den nächsten Wochen verfärbt es sich unter Einfluss von Pflanzensäften ins braune. Es besteht aus Knochensubstanz und nicht aus Horn wie häufig angenommen wird.

Ursprünglich bewohnte das Rotwild offene Landschaften, weite Steppen. Durch das Eindringen der Menschen in die Natur war es jedoch gezwungen sich in größere Waldgebiete zurückzuziehen. Rothirsche findet man vor allem in Mittel- und Hochgebirgen beispielsweise im Harz, in der Eifel, im Bayerischer Wald, aber auch im Tiefland wie etwa der Lüneburger Heide. Rotwild geht gerne auf ausgedehnte Wanderschaft und legt dabei über 100 Kilometer in wenigen Tagen zurück. Heutzutage ist dies jedoch kaum mehr möglich, da die Wälder zu sehr durch Besiedlung durchtrennt sind.

Rothirsche verfügen über einige Duftdrüsen an ihrem Körper, deren Signale eine wichtige Rolle im Sozialleben spielen. Die Sekrete aus diesen Drüsen dienen der Markierung, indem das Rotwild sie durch Reiben an Bäumen oder Sträuchern verteilt. Besonders zur Brunftzeit spielen diese Drüsen eine wichtige Rolle. Wie alle Hirsche haben Rothirsche einen ausgeprägten Geruchssinn. Um Feinde sofort riechen zu können, achten sie bei ihren Ruheplätzen auf die Windrichtung.

Rothirsche sind Rudeltiere: in meist nach Geschlechtern getrennten Sozialverbänden folgen die Tiere jeweils ihrem Anführer. Die weiblichen Hirsche leben mit ihren Jungtieren in Kahlwild-Rudeln, die jeweils von einem erfahrenen Alttier, dem Leittier, angeführt werden. Zeitweise sind auch junge männliche Hirsche im Rudel zugelassen. Ausgewachsene männliche Rothirsche leben ebenfalls in Rudeln zusammen und schließen sich nur in der Brunftzeit dem Kahlwild an. Nur die ältesten männlichen Hirsche leben häufig auch als Einzelgänger oder mit einem sogenannten Beihirsch zusammen.

Die Brunft beginnt dann hierzulande Anfang September und dauert bis zu sechs Wochen. Zu dieser Zeit sind die Geweihe der männlichen Rothirsche in voller Pracht und der Testostertonspiegel ordentlich erhöht. Mit kilometerweit hörbarem Röhren streiten sich die kapitalen Männchen um die Gunst der Weibchen, wer der „Platzhirsch“ sein darf. Alle andere Männchen sind nun Konkurrenten. Seine steigende Brunftstimmung bringt der Hirsch unter anderem durch das so genannte „Bodenforkeln“ zum Ausdruck, indem er mit seinem Geweih den Boden stark bearbeitet und aufwühlt, sein Geweih mit herunterhängendem Gras noch mehr unterstreicht. Auch ist ein „Plätzen“ mit den Vorderläufen festzustellen. In diese angelegten Bodenverwundungen nässt der Hirsch, um sich anschließend ausgiebigst darin zu wälzen. Durch dieses Verhalten nimmt er seinen typischen Brunftgeruch an, welcher ihn für das Kahlwild durch die im Urin enthaltenen, geschlechtlichen Duftstoffe besonders interessant erscheinen lässt. Reicht eine verbale und visuelle Auseinandersetzung nicht aus um zu klären wer der Stärker ist, kommt es zum Kampf. Dabei knallen die Geweihe lautstark gegeneinander und verhaken sich. Nun schieben sich die Widersacher dann über den Platz, „forkeln“ sich, bis der unterlegene den Kampf beendet. Es handelt sich bei diesen Kämpfen um sogenannte „Kommentkämpfe“, bei dem es feste Verhaltensregeln gibt. Dennoch werden gelegentlich Tiere dabei verletzt oder sogar getötet. Selten verhaken sich die Geweihe gar so, dass sich die Tiere nicht mehr befreien können und durch Verhungern oder Verdursten sterben. Die Hirsche nehmen während der Brunftzeit kaum Nahrung zu sich und verlieren über 25 Prozent ihres Körpergewichts. Nachdem der Platzhirsch die weiblichen Rothirsche binnen weniger Sekunden begattet hat, trennt er sich nach der Brunft von dem Rudel. Die Hirschkuh ist dann etwa acht Monate trächtig und wirft im Mai oder Juni die Kälber, die bis zum Winter gesäugt werden. Die Kälber sind in der ersten Zeit gelblich gefleckt und bekommen erst im Spätsommer ihr dunkles Winterhaar.

Die dämmerungs- und nachtaktiven Rothirsche sind reine Pflanzenfresser und Wiederkäuer. Neben Gräsern ernähren sie sich von Blättern und Baumfrüchten wie Eicheln, Kastanien und Bucheckern. Ist die Nahrung knapp, schälen Rothirsche gerne auch die Rinde von Bäumen. Während Rehe nur eiweißreiche Blätter und Triebe bevorzugen, frisst der Rothirsch zahlreiche verschiedene Pflanzen und auch Pilze und Flechten. Am Tag fressen sie so bis zu zwanzig Kilogramm Pflanzenmaterial. Rothirsche haben heutzutage keine natürlichen Feinde mehr. Früher stellten Bären und Wölfe eine Gefahr für den Rothirsch dar, heute sind es Straßenverkehr und weitere menschliche Bedrohungen.


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Der Maulwurf

     Eingetragen am
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Februar 12th, 2014
von Eulbergs Heimische Gefilde

maulwurfWie ein Schaufelradbagger legt er emsig mit seinen Vorderpfoten lange Tunnel an, baut sich unterirdische Kammern, wie Vorratskammer, Schlafzimmer und Brutkammer: Der Maulwurf.

Sein Name bezieht sich keineswegs auf sein Maul, sondern stammt ursprünglich von dem alten Begriff „Molte“, was Erde bedeutet. Er ist also ein „Erdwerfer“. Sandige Böden meidet er, denn in ihm fallen die Tunnel schnell zusammen. In wässrigen Böden ist das Graben wiederum für ihn zu anstrengend. Seine typischen Lebensräume sind Äcker, Wiesen und Wälder.

Der Maulwurf verbringt sein ganzes Leben unterirdisch und ist an dieses perfekt angepasst. Da wäre zunächst seine Größe: Mit nur zwei Zentimeter Körperhöhe nimmt er wenig Platz ein. Seine Augen und Ohren liegen gut geschützt unter seinem Fell. Die Augen sind ganz klein, haben sich im Lauf der Evolution zurück gebildet, denn unter der Erde würde er sowieso nichts sehen. Lediglich hell und dunkel kann er mit ihnen unterscheiden. Daher kommt auch die Redewendung „blind wie ein Maulwurf“. Auch die Ohren liegen unter dem dichten Fell verborgen und können mit einer Haut verschlossen werden. Im Gegensatz zum Sehsinn, ist sein Hörvermögen jedoch sehr gut ausgeprägt. In seinem Gangsystem orientiert sich der Maulwurf mit seinem Geruchsinn, mit dem er Nahrung aufspürt. Zusätzlich helfen ihm feine Tasthaare im Gesicht und am Schwanz seine Umwelt zu erkunden. Seine Schnauze ist lang und beweglich. Sie ist reich mit Tastsinneszellen ausgestattet, die ihn befähigen, nicht nur Tastreize, sondern auch elektrische Reize wahrzunehmen, die bei der Muskelbewegung ihrer potentiellen Beutetiere entstehen. Darüber hinaus nimmt der Maulwurf auch kleinste Erschütterungen war.

Eine weitere Besonderheit sind seine Vorderpfoten, deren Innenflächen nach außen gedreht sind. Außerdem ist das Sichelbein zu einem Art sechsten Finger umgestaltet, was ihm das Graben erleichtert. Kräftige Muskeln erlauben es ihm Erdmassen, die das 20-fache seines Körpergewichts ausmachen zu bewegen. Der Erdaushub aus den Tunnelarbeiten wird am Ende der Tunnel ausgeworfen, so dass die allseits bekannten Maulwurfshügel entstehen. Das Fell des Maulwurfs besteht nur aus Wollhaaren ohne Strich und ist daher besonders weich. Damit kann er in seinen engen Gängen gleich gut vorwärts wie rückwärts kriechen. Die Luft unter der Erde ist sauerstoffarm, aber auch daran ist der Maulwurf optimal angepasst: Der Anteil des Sauerstoff transportierenden Hämoglobins ist in seinem Blut erhöht, so dass die Zellen ausreichend mit Sauerstoff versorgt werden können. Dafür ist der Stoffwechsel des Maulwurfs aber äußerst aktiv. Daher braucht er jeden Tag Nahrung: täglich nimmt er etwa die Hälfte seines Körpergewichts zu sich. Bekommt er schon länger als einen Tag keine Nahrung, stirbt der Maulwurf, da er fast keine Fettreserven aufbauen kann. Er ernährt sich insbesondere von Regenwürmern, kleinen Insekten, Larven und Lurchen. Entgegen einiger landläufiger Meinungen ist der Maulwurf also kein Pflanzenschädling. Und auch dem Boden schadet er nicht: Auch wenn er viele Regenwürmer frisst, die den Boden ebenfalls auflockern, muss man sich keine Sorgen um den Regenwurmbestand in seinem Garten machen. Da der Maulwurf gerne Schädlinge wie Schnecken, Schneckenlarven und Engerlinge frisst, ist er sogar ausgesprochen nützlich für den Garten. Das Problem mit den Maulwurfshügeln ist also eher ein ästhetisches. Nur in Gemüsebeeten kann er manchmal Schäden anrichten, wenn er Pflanzen von unten frei gräbt, so dass diese schief stehen oder zu wenig Wasser bekommen.

Seine Nahrungssuche ähnelt dem der Spinne: In seinem stark verzweigten Tunnelsystem, sitzt der Maulwurf in seinem Kessel und wartet auf Geräusche in seinem Labyrinth. Sobald er Insekten, Regenwürmer oder andere Tiere hört, die in sein Gangsystem eingetreten sind, läuft er hin und frisst die Beute oder legt sich Vorräte an. Durch den dichten Pelz verdichtet der Maulwurf automatisch die Tunnelwände, so dass die Beutetiere nicht mehr so leicht wieder herauskommen. Nur wenn im Winter der Boden zu tief gefroren ist, jagt der Maulwurf auch über dem Boden, aber zunächst versucht er einfach tiefer in der Erde sein Glück. Der Maulwurf hält keinen Winterschlaf. Den Wintervorrat bilden vor allem Regenwürmer. Ihnen beißt er ganz clever das Vorderende ab, so dass sie sich nicht mehr bewegen können, aber dennoch weiterleben. Die gesamte Ganglänge eines Tunnelsystems beträgt nicht selten 200 Meter. Die Gänge werden häufig mit Drüsensekreten markiert, um Eindringlinge abzuschrecken.
In einem Tunnelsystem lebt immer nur ein Maulwurf, denn nur zur Paarungszeit, zwischen März und April, finden Männchen und Weibchen zusammen. Die Tragezeit beträgt in etwa vier Wochen. Ein bis zweimal jährlich werfen Maulwürfe. Einen Monat nach der Paarung bringen die Weibchen die Jungen auf die Welt. Das Nest legt der Maulwurf unter einem riesigen Maulwurfshaufen an, der bis zu einem halben Meter hoch sein kann. Daher liegt das Nest praktisch überirdisch und wird im Volksmund auch als „Sumpfburg“ bezeichnet. Die Kammer ist mit Laub und Gras gepolstert und vier bis fünf junge Maulwürfe finden in ihr Platz. Als Nesthocker sind die Jungen von der Mutter abhängig und werden zwischen vier bis sechs Wochen lang von ihr gesäugt. Nach sechs bis zwölf Monaten erreichen die jungen Maulwürfe die Geschlechtsreife und gründen ihr eigenes Tunnelsystem.

Aufgrund ihrer natürlichen Fressfeinde werden Maulwürfe nicht sehr alt. Wildschweine, Dachse und Bussarde warten nur darauf, dass der Maulwurf aus seinem Tunnel kommt. So werden Maulwürfe im Durchschnitt nicht älter als drei Jahre. Neben ihren natürlichen Fressfeinden können den Maulwürfen auch Hochwasser gefährlich werden, die ihr Tunnelsystem überfluten.

Zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts wurden Maulwürfe noch stark wegen ihres Fells gejagt. Da Maulwurfhaare bei starker Benutzung aber ausfallen, kamen die Maulwurfpelze zum Glück rasch wieder aus der Mode. Mittlerweile ist der Maulwurf gesetzlich unter Schutz gestellt und darf weder gefangen, noch mit Fallen und Gift getötet werden. Wenn jemand einen Maulwurf trotz seines positiven Einflusses auf Böden aus seinem Garten vertreiben möchte, empfiehlt es sich eine Brühe aus Lebensbaumzweigen, Holunderzweigen und Knoblauch zu kochen und diese in seinen Gang zu gießen. Der Geruch wird den Maulwurf vertreiben, da er ihn unausstehlich findet. Hingegen sollte man keine Maulwurfshaufen platt treten, denn dann bekommt der Maulwurf zu wenig Sauerstoff.


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Der Laubfrosch

     Eingetragen am
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Dezember 11th, 2013
von Eulbergs Heimische Gefilde

Laubfrosch

Der Laubfrosch galt einst als „Wetterfrosch“ und wurde häufig zusammen mit einer kleinen Holzleiter in Einmachgläser gesperrt um den Menschen als Wetterbarometer zu dienen. Wenn er die Leiter hoch kletterte, wurde mit gutem Wetter gerechnet, blieb er auf dem Boden wurde das Wetter schlecht. Dieses traurige Dasein verdankt der Laubfrosch der Beobachtung, dass sie im Spätsommer bei schönem, sonnigen Wetter an Büschen und Stauden höher sitzen als bei trübem regnerischem Wetter, was jedoch lediglich in der Verfügbarkeit von Insekten begründet liegt. Wissenschaftlich konnte dem Laubfrosch solche Wetterfee-Kompetenzen allerdings nie bewiesen werden.

Seine Kletterfähigkeiten verdankt der Laubfrosch besonderen Haftscheiben an Fingern und Zehen mit denen er sogar an Glasscheiben kleben bleibt. Eine unregelmäßig versetzte Anordnung aus bienenwabenähnlichen Säulen auf mikroskopischer Ebene, bietet ihm diese spezielle Stabilität.  Darüber hinaus erlaubt ein Zwischenknorpel zwischen den Endgliedern der Finger das Greifen von Ästen oder Stielen. So ist der Laubfrosch der einzige Frosch in unseren Gefilden, der klettern kann.  Er ist sehr agil und bewegt sich auch auf Sträuchern sehr wendig. Er hangelt sich manchmal kopfüber durch das Geäst und springt zielsicher Blätter und Äste in mehreren Dutzend Zentimeter an.

Die Haut des Laubfrosches ist glatt und an der Oberseite charakteristisch grasgrün gefärbt. An der Unterseite und an den Innenseiten der Beine ist der Laubfrosch hingegen weiß und genoppt. Gut zu erkennen ist er außerdem an dem dunklen nach oben hell gesäumten Band, das sich beidseitig von den Nasenlöchern bis zu den Hinterbeinen erstreckt, wo es sogenannte Hüftschlingen formt.

Laubfrösche besitzen die Fähigkeit innerhalb von ein paar Minuten, bis einer Viertelstunde ihre Farbe zu wechseln. Dabei wird die Rückenfärbung durch hormonell gesteuerte Pigmentverlagerungen an den Untergrund hervorragend angepasst, so dass die Tiere kaum mehr  auffindbar auf Zweigen und Laub sitzen können. So sind neben der grasgrünen Färbung, auch Grau-, Braun- oder Gelbtöne möglich. Gar dunkle Flecken und Marmorierungen treten auf.  Experimentell konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Hautfarbe nicht über visuelle Reize sondern über den Tastsinn gesteuert wird. Ihre Farbe passt sich der Struktur des Untergrunds an die Laubfrösche erfühlen. So bleiben sie auf glatten Oberflächen wie Blättern grün, auf rauen Strukturen wie etwa einer Baumrinde werden sie braun oder grau. Auch die Temperatur spielt bei dem Wechseln der Hautfarbe eine Rolle. Je höher die Temperatur, desto heller wird die Haut des Laubfrosches, um sich vor Überhitzung zu schützen. Selten sieht man gar blaue Laubfrösche, dass hat jedoch nichts mit dem Untergrund zu tun; diesen Exemplaren fehlt genetisch bedingt der gelbe Hautfarbstoff, so das sie blau erscheinen. Die Haut der Laubfrösche besitzt außerdem zahlreiche Schleimdrüsen, die vor Austrocknung schützen und im Wasser vor Eindringen von Flüssigkeit.

Der Laubfrosch ist mit nur vier bis fünf Zentimetern die kleinste heimisch Froschart. Mit seinen langen Hinterbeinen kann er zwar schlecht laufen, aber dafür sehr weit springen. Im Gegensatz zu Säugetieren ist die Muskulatur von Laubfröschen viel dehnbarer und im Ruhezustand schon stark in die Länge gezogen. Beim Sprung ziehen sich die Muskeln plötzliche stark zusammen und durch die Hebelwirkung der langen Beine kommen erstaunlich weite Distanzen zustande.

Weibchen und Männchen des Laubfrosches lassen sich an der Kehle unterscheiden: Beim Männchen ist die Kehle faltig und bräunlich bis orange, bei den Weibchen ist die Kehle glatt und beige. Die Kehle der Männchen ist faltig, da sie damit eine große Schallblase erzeugen, durch die sie laute Paarungsrufe erzeugen können. Trotz ihrer geringen Körpergröße verfügen sie über die lauteste Stimme unter den mitteleuropäischen Lurchen. Dabei werden unglaubliche Lautstärken bis zu 90 Dezibel erreicht, die kilometerweit hörbar sind. In warmen Nächten von April bis Mai beginnt ihr Konzert an möglichen Laichgewässern. Dazu dienen meist stehende und reich strukturierte Gewässer wie Seeufer-Bereiche, Teiche und Altarme. Dann sind die Froschkonzerte von Sonnenuntergang bis tief in die Nacht zu hören. Mit den Balzrufen stecken die Männchen zum einen ihr Territorium ab und zum anderen sollen Weibchen angelockt werden, die aus ihren Winterquartieren zu den Laichgewässern wandern. Für sie gelten die lautesten männlichen Exemplare als besonders anziehend. Bei der Paarung steigt das Männchen auf den Rücken des Weibchens und umklammert es unter den Achseln. Dann bleibt das Männchen meist etwa eine Stunde, manchmal aber auch Tage auf dem Rücken, bis es den aus der Kloake des Weibchens austretenden Laich besamen kann. Die Spermien verteilt das Männchen dabei mit seinen Hinterbeinen auf den Eiern. Die Befruchtung erfolgt also außerhalb des Körpers. Dabei entstehen mehrere Ballen mit bis zu 100 befruchteten Eiern, die an untergetauchte Pflanzenhalme geklebt werden. Doch nur die wenigsten Larven überleben, denn Fische, Vögel oder auch größere Insekten haben sie zum fressen gern.

Nach dem Ablaichen wandern die Laubfrösche weiter zu Gebüschen und Bäumen, die ihnen als Lebensraum dienen. Ihre Winterruhe verbringen sie ab Mitte Oktober meist in Wäldern in Erdhöhlen, großen Laubhaufen sowie Steinspalten. Als wechselwarme Tiere müssen sie dabei auf frostfreie Überwinterungsplätze achten.

Die Larven schlüpfen meist nach ein bis zwei Wochen als Kaulquappen mit außenanliegenden Kiemenästen. Zunächst ernähren sie sich von den gallertartigen Laichresten, später auch von Schwebteilchen im Wasser und kleinen Pflanzenteilchen. Nach ein paar Tagen verschwinden die Außenkiemen und es bilden sich Innenkiemen. Je nach Temperatur und Nahrungsvorkommen durchlaufen die Kaulquappen nach ein bis drei Monaten eine Metamorphose: Die Hinterbeinchen wachsen, der Ernährungsplan wird von Pflanzen auf Fleisch umgestellt und die Kiemenatmung wandelt sich zur Lungenatmung um. Die Geschlechtsreife erlangen Laubfrösche nach zwei Jahren, ein ganzes Laubfroschleben dauert bis zu sieben Jahren.

Erwachsene Laubfrösche ernähren sich überwiegend von Insekten wie Käfern, Spinnen und Fliegen, nach denen sie meist bei Einbruch der Dämmerung suchen. Dem Reiz eines sich ihnen nähernden Insekts können sie jedoch auch am Tage nicht widerstehen. Meist ruhen die Laubfrösche dabei auf Ästen oder Halmen in Bodennähe, vertrauen auf ihre Tarnung und warten so auf ihre Beute. Mit ihrer schnell hervorspringenden, klebrigen Zunge fangen sie Flug- und Laufinsekten. Da Frösche keine Zähne haben, schlucke sie ihre Nahrung in einem Stück herunter.

Als Lebensraum bevorzugt der Laubfrosch reichstrukturierte Landschaften mit sonnigen Plätzen und Gewässern mit krautreichen Flachwasserzone zum Laichen. Doch der Verlust der ehemals vielfältig strukturierten Wiesen- und Grünlandschaften mit Laichgewässern macht dem Laubfrosch schwer zu schaffen. Auch Umweltgifte und trockengelegte Feuchtgebiete haben seinen Bestand in vielen Regionen minimiert oder sogar ganz ausgelöscht. Zudem werden Laubfrösche ebenso wie andere Amphibien bei ihren Wanderungen durch den Straßenverkehr stark bedroht.


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Heimische Schlangen

     Eingetragen am
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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 111

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 428

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 429

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 430

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 431

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 432

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 433

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 435

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 437

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 438

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 439

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 440

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 441

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 442

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 443

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 444

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Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 411

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 429

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 430

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 431

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 432

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 433

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 434

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 435

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 436

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 437

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 438

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Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 447
August 26th, 2013
von Eulbergs Heimische Gefilde

Ringeln

Bereits in der Bibel kommt die Schlange nicht gut weg. Auch heute noch werden hinterlistige Menschen als Schlange bezeichnet. Vielleicht begründet sich ihr schlechter Ruf in ihrer Art auf Beutefang zu gehen und in ihren außerordentlichen Fähigkeiten. Denn Schlangen lauern ihrer Beute aus einem Hinterhalt auf und greifen erst an, wenn die Beute nah genug ist. Mit Geschwindigkeiten bis zu zehn Metern pro Sekunde schießen sie dann auf ihre Beute zu.

Mann unterscheidet Schlangen in Gift- und Würgeschlangen. Vipern etwa beißen ihre Beute mit ihren Giftzähnen, Nattern etwa beißen sich hingegen mit ihren ungiftigen Zähnen in ihrem Opfer fest, um die Beute dann zu erwürgen. Nachdem eine Viper ihre Beute gebissen hat, lässt sie sie wieder los und wartet bis das Gift seine Arbeit getan hat. Während sich das Beutetier versucht in Sicherheit zu bringen, folgt ihr die Giftschlange. Da Schlangen einen nur schwach ausgeprägten Sehsinn haben, nutzten sie ihren nasovomeralen Sinn, den alle Schlangen besitzen: Mit der Zunge nehmen sie Duftstoffe auf und führen sie dann zum sogenannten Jacobson`schen Organ, das im Gaumen sitzt. Mit diesem Organ können sie ihre Beute riechen oder Sexualhormone potentieller Sexualpartner wahrnehmen. Mit der gespaltenen Zunge ordnen sie darüber hinaus die Geruchsinformation räumlich ein. Schlangen hören nicht im gewöhnlichen Sinne, da sie kein Außenohr besitzen. Über ihr Innenohr können sie allerdings Erschütterungen des Bodens sehr sensibel wahrnehmen, die ihre Opfer bei ihren Bewegungen machen. So spüren auch Nattern ihre Beutetiere auf. Statt sie mit Gift zu töten, erwürgen die meisten Natterarten ihr Opfer. Sie umschlingen den Körper der Beute so fest und so lange, bis dessen Herz aufgehört hat zu schlagen.

In Deutschland kommen sechs Schlangenarten vor. Zwei Giftschlangenarten: Kreuzotter und Aspisviper, sowie 4 Würgeschlangenarten: Ringelnatter, Äskulapnatter, Würfelnatter und Schlingnatter. Da Schlangen ihrer Beute auflauern, benötigen sie für ihren Lebensraum viele Versteckmöglichkeiten. Anders als der Mensch, können sie ihre Körpertemperatur nicht mit Stoffwechselprozessen auf einer konstanten Temperatur halten und benötigen Plätze um sich zu sonnen, und Höhlen zum überwintern. In Deutschland wurde ihr Lebensraum durch aufgeforstete Wälder und verschmutze Gewässer größtenteils zerstört. Die sechs übrig gebliebenen Arten kommen hauptsächlich in Süddeutschland vor.

Die in Deutschland am weitesten verbreitete Schlange ist die Ringelnatter. Sie lebt meist in der Nähe von Seen oder kleineren Flüssen, da sie im Wasser wie auch an Land lebt. Man erkennt die Ringelnatter an ihren beiden typischen weißlich-gelben Nackenflecken. Ansonsten ist der Körper überwiegend grau. Die Weibchen werden etwa 80 bis 140 cm lang, Männchen hingegen nur bis etwa 80 cm. Ringelnattern sind tagsüber aktiv. Um ihren Körper warm zu halten, flachen sie sich beim Sonnen ab, um so ihre Oberfläche zu vergrößern oder rollen sich auf, um weniger Wärme an ihre Umgebung abzugeben. Ringelnattern ernähren sich größtenteils von Kröten und Fröschen, Eidechsen und manchmal auch von Kleinsäugetieren. Dabei verschlingen sie ihre Beute bei lebendigem Leib, ohne sie vorher durch Würgen zu ersticken. Droht der Ringelnatter Gefahr, hält sie mehrere Abwehrstrategien bereit: Entweder sie entlässt eine übelriechende Flüssigkeit aus ihren Stinkdrüsen oder bläht sich auf, um größer zu wirken. Zur Abwehr vollzieht sie außerdem Scheinbisse in die Luft und zischt ihren Angreifer an. Häufig wird auch ein Totstellen beobachtet. Dafür legt sie sich mit geöffnetem Maul auf den Rücken. Für Menschen ist die Ringelnatter ungefährlich. Der Bestand der Ringelnatter hat sich in Deutschland trotz ihrer Verbreitung stetig verringert.

Die Kreuzotter gehört mit der Aspisviper zu den einzigen Giftschlangen Deutschlands. Auch wenn der Biss nicht lebensbedrohlich ist, sollte man nach einem Biss einen Arzt aufsuchen. Kreuzottern gehören ebenfalls zu der Familie der Vipern, die fast alle ein Gift produzieren, dass das Gewebe des Opfers zerstört und sein Blut zum Gerinnen bringt. Kreuzottern erreichen im Durchschnitt eine Länge von 50-80 cm. Ihr Kopf setzt sich kaum vom Körper ab. Das leichteste Erkennungsmerkmal ist das dunkle Zickzack-Band auf ihrem Rücken. Doch es gibt auch Ausnahmen: Die „Höllenotter“ ist eine komplett schwarze Variation der Kreuzotter. Da sie im Alpenraum auftritt wird sie auch Bergviper genannt. Die Kreuzotter bevorzugt Orte mit starken Tag-Nacht Temperaturschwankungen und gehört wie die Aspisviper zu den wenigen Reptilien die lebend gebärend sind. Ihre Jungen entschlüpfen schon während der Geburt aus dem Ei und sind danach auf sich selbst gestellt.

Die Aspisviper hat ein noch etwas stärkeres Gift als die Kreuzotter und es wird empfohlen einen Biss im Krankenhaus mit Antiserum zu behandeln. Die Aspisviper kann über 20 Jahre alt werden und über 80 cm lang. Sie ist an ihrem dreieckigen Kopf, der deutlich vom Körper abgesetzt ist zu erkennen. Ihr Vorkommen beschränkt sich auf den Südschwarzwald insbesondere auf die höheren Lagen. Die Grundfärbung variiert stark von Hellgrau bis Orange ebenso wie das Rückenmuster, das meist aus leicht versetzen rechteckiger Flecken besteht. Die sonnige Plätzchen liebende Schlange ernährt sich von kleinen Säugetieren, Eidechsen und Vögeln.

Die größte heimische Schlange ist mit einer Länge bis zu 180 cm die Äskulapnatter. Ihren Namen verdankt sie dem altgriechischen Gott der Heilkunst, Äskulap. Dieser hielt einen Stab, um dessen Schaft sich eine Natter wickelte. Auch heute noch ist sie das Wappentier der Ärzte und Apotheker, und ist etwa in dem allgemeinbekannten Apothekensymbol zu sehen. Sie kann an die 30 Jahre alt werden und kommt im südlichen Odenwald, am Rheingau und an der Donau vor. Ihr Grundfärbung ist sehr variabel von gelblich über bräunlich bis gräulich. Am besten erkennt man sie an ihrer glänzenden Oberfläche und an den hell umrandeten Schuppen. Sie kann ihre Schuppen einspreizen und dadurch zur Nahrungssuche sogar Bäume hoch klettern. Dennoch lebt sie meist am Boden an sonnigen, trockenen Orten, an denen sie sich hauptsächlich von Mäusen ernährt, die sie vor dem Verzehr durch Würgen erstickt.

Die kleinste heimische Schlange ist die Schlingnatter. Sie wird meist nicht mal 70 cm lang und ist in Deutschland sehr selten geworden. Sie liebt trockene und warme Standorte, besiedelt aber recht unterschiedliche Biotope. Durch ihren grauen gefleckten Rücken werden die Weibchen häufig mit Kreuzottern verwechselt. Sie hat im Gegensatz zur Kreuzotter jedoch runde Pupillen und einen vom Nasenloch bis zum Mundwinkel verlaufenden dunklen Wangenstreifen. Aufgrund ihrer glatten, ungekielten Schuppen wird sie häufig auch als Glattnatter bezeichnet. Anders als die anderen heimischen Natterarten ist die Schlingnatter lebend gebärend. Ihre Jungen sind vom ersten Tag an auf sich selbst gestellt. Als Beute bevorzugt die Schlingnatter Eidechsen, Mäuse und andere junge Schlangen, die sie vorher erwürgt. Fühlt sie sich bedroht, beißt sie gelegentlich auch zu. Ihre kleinen Zähne hinterlassen beim Menschen jedoch nur minimale Kratzer.

Die Würfelnatter verlässt als Wasserschlange ihr Gewässer nur zum Sonnenbaden, zur Fortpflanzung oder zur Überwinterung. Leider hat die Wasserverschmutzung in Deutschland ihre Art stark minimiert, so dass sie vom Aussterben bedroht ist. Die letzten Populationen finden sich an der Lahn, der Mosel und der Nahe. Als flinke Schwimmer und Taucher erjagen sie vornehmlich Amphibien und Fische. Das charakteristische dunkle Würfelmuster auf ihrem gräulich bis bräunlichen Rücken verleiht der Würfelnatter ihren Namen. Als Wasserschlange kommt ihr ihre schlanke Gestalt zu nutze, die bis zu einem Meter lang werden kann. Bei Bedrohung ähnelt ihr Verhalten dem der Ringelnatter, das von Totstellen bis zur Ausscheiden eines übelriechenden Sekrets reicht.


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Was sind eigentlich Pilze und Flechten?

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 431

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 432

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 436

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 437

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Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 447
Juni 7th, 2013
von Eulbergs Heimische Gefilde

399px-Fungi_273691251

Pilze wurden früher zu den Pflanzen gezählt. Seit den 60er Jahren werden sie aber von Biologen als eigenes Reich dargestellt. Denn Pilze ernähren sich im Gegensatz zu Pflanzen nicht von Sonnenenergie und sie produzieren auch keinen Sauerstoff. Wie Tiere und Menschen verbrauchen sie Sauerstoff und bilden dabei Kohlendioxid. Ihre Zellwände bestehen auch nicht wie bei Pflanzen aus Cellulose, sondern aus Chitin. Das ist derselbe Stoff, der im Panzer von Insekten enthalten ist. Pilze findet man in der Erde, über der Erde aber auch auf der Haut des Menschen. Sie können schädlich sein, heilend oder sogar berauschend und finden beim Brotbacken Verwendung ebenso wie bei der Gärung von Bier, Wein und Essig. Die Backhefe, die wir in beim Backen verwenden ist nichts anderes als ein einzelliger Pilz mit dem komplizierten lateinischen Namen Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Der giftigste Pilz unserer Gefilde ist auf gewisse Art und Weise der Grüne Knollenblätterpilz, der leicht von Pilzsammlern mit dem Champignon verwechselt wird. Er ist für rund 90 Prozent der Pilzvergiftungen mit Todesfolge verantwortlich. Sein extrem giftiges Amanitin bleibt auch nach dem Kochen vollständig erhalten. Ein einzelner verspeister Pilz enthält bereits genügend Gift um tödlich zu sein.

Das was wir für gewöhnlich als Pilz bezeichnen und was auf dem Waldboden sichtbar ist, ist eigentlich nur der Fruchtkörper des Pilzes. Dieser dient zur Fortpflanzung und bildet die Sporen, die Samen der Pilze, die man mit dem bloßen Auge nur in großen Mengen erkennen kann. Beim Champignon etwa sitzt das sporenbildende Gewebe an schmalen Lamellen, die an der Unterseite des Hutes speichenartig angeordnet sind. Die Lamellen werden auch Blätter genannt, weshalb diese Pilze auch Blätterpilze genannt werden. Der größte Teil des Pilzes wächst aber als Fadengeflecht unter der Erde. Die meiste Zeit des Jahres bestehen solche Pilze nur aus diesem Fadengeflecht, der Fruchtkörper zeigt sich nur während einer kurzen Periode. Dieses Fadengeflecht kann erstaunliche Ausmaße annehmen. So hat das Geflecht einer Hallimaschart im Malheur National Forest in den USA eine Ausdehnung von ca. 1000 Fußballfeldern, ist etwa 600 Tonnen schwer und ist mindestens 2400 Jahre alt. Damit gilt er als das größte und eines der ältesten Lebewesen der Erde.

Pilze ernähren sich wie Tiere von Stoffen, die von anderen Lebewesen hergestellt wurden. Viele Pilze befallen die Wurzeln junger Waldbäume. Die betroffenen Wurzeln können dann keine Härchen mehr zur Wasseraufnahme ausbilden. Der Baum stirbt trotzdem nicht, da er die Stoffe, die er braucht aus dem Pilzgeflecht zieht. Baum und Pilz leben dann also in Symbiose. Besonders Bäume, die auf nährstoffarmen Böden wachsen profitieren von der hohen Saugkraft der Pilzfäden, so dass sie auch relativ trockenen Böden noch Wasser entziehen können. Manche Pilze bevorzugen bestimmte Baumarten. Dies können sich Pilzsammler zu Nutzen machen. So findet man etwa Maronenpilze insbesondere unter Kiefern und Fichten. Der gegenseitige Nutzen von Pilz und Baum kann auch zur Aufforstung genutzt werden, indem junge Bäume mit dem jeweiligen Pilzpartner beimpft werden und so ihre Wachstumschancen gesteigert werden.

Bestimmte Pilzarten können auch mit Algen in Symbiose leben. Die graugrünen, roten oder gelblichen unregelmäßigen Fäden oder Krusten an Mauern, Felsen und Bäumen, sind nichts anderes als das Zusammenleben von Pilz und Alge, welche wir für gewöhnlich als Flechte bezeichnen. Dabei bilden Pilzfäden die äußere Gestalt und eine Art Rinde. Im Innern des Pilzgeflechts befinden sich meist einzellige Grünalgen, die vom Pilzgeflecht mit Mineralstoffen und Wasser versorgt werden. Der Pilz wiederum wird von der Alge mit Kohlenhydraten versorgt, die die Alge durch Photosynthese gewinnt. Flechten haben keine besonderen Anforderungen an ihren Untergrund, jedoch an die Sauberkeit der Luft. Denn bei den meisten Flechten lässt die Rinde Schadstoffe ungehindert passieren. Da Flechten sehr langsam wachsen, aber sehr alt werden, können sich Umweltgifte so ungehindert anhäufen, bis die Flechten sterben. Daher gibt das Vorkommen von Flechten Aufschluss über den Sauberkeitsgrad der Luft. Sind nur noch pulverartige Grünalgen vorhanden ohne Pilzpartner, ist die Luft meist sehr stark verschmutzt. Flechten können noch älter  werden als Pilze für sich alleine, in Einzelfällen sogar über 4500 Jahre wie etwa die Landkartenflechte aus Grönland.

Manche Pilze können auch parasitär leben und zum Beispiel Baumstämme befallen. In diesem Fall profitiert nur der Pilz von dem Zusammenleben: Er entzieht dem Baum aus seinem Inneren wertvolle Nährstoffe. Pilzbefall an Pflanzen kann ganze Missernten entstehen lassen, wie zum Beispiel der bekannte Mehltau, der als weißer Belag auf Blättern sichtbar ist. Früher sehr gefürchtet war auch das Mutterkorn. Es wächst vorwiegend in Roggenähren. Statt eines Roggenkorns bildet sich dann ein schwarz-violettes hornförmiges Mutterkorn. Dieses konnte bei der Ernte leicht übersehen werden. Da der Pilz sehr giftig ist führte er zu Symptomen, die im 17. Jahrhundert unter dem Begriff „Antonius-Feuer“ zusammengefasst wurden: Halluzinationen, Krämpfe, Kribbeln und Absterben von Gliedmaßen. Auch wenn der Pilz auch heute noch Roggen befällt, besteht für den Verzehr von Roggenprodukten kein Risiko, da die Pilze bei der Aufbereitung sicher entfernt werden.

Eine weitere Gruppe von Pilzen ernährt sich von toter organischer Substanz, wie abgestorbenem Holz oder Falllaub. Mit Hilfe von hochaktiven Substanzen zersetzen diese Pilze Blätter und Holz und ziehen sich so die Nährstoffe und Mineralien heraus, die sie brauchen. Diese Gruppe von Pilzen spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Verarbeitung abgestorbenen Pflanzenmaterials. Zusammen mit Bakterien bauen Pilze abgestorbenes Material ab und bilden daraus Humus, der wiederum wichtige Nahrungsgrundlage der Pflanzen darstellt.

Doch Pilze spielen auch im Leben des Menschen eine wichtige Rolle. Sie dienen uns nicht nur als Nahrungsmittel, sondern finden auch in Medikamenten Verwendung. Das antibiotisch wirksame Penicillin, das auch heute noch therapeutisch verwendet wird, wird von verschiedenen Pilzarten unter anderem den Penicillium-Arten gebildet. Penicillin hindert Bakterien daran sich zu vermehren. Entdeckt wurde der Wirkstoff durch eine ungewollt verschimmelte Bakterienkultur des Forschers Alexander Fleming. In einer seiner Petrischalen hatte sich ein Schimmelpilz ausgebreitet. Dies passiert im Labor häufiger und im Normalfall würde die Schale einfach weggeworfen. Doch Fleming sah, dass auf dem Nährboden in der Nachbarschaft des Schimmelpilzes keine Vermehrung der Bakterien stattgefunden hatte. Der Stoff, der für dieses Phänomen verantwortlich ist, wurde nach der Pilzart getauft und Fleming erhielt für seine Entdeckung den Nobelpreis.

Pilze kommen aber auch im und am menschlichen Körper vor. Auf der Haut ebenso wie im Darm des Menschen leben eine Vielzahl an Bakterien und Pilzen, die aber im Normalfall keinen Schaden anrichten. Erst wenn das Immunsystem geschwächt ist oder hormonelle Umstellungen stattfinden, können sie Krankheiten verursachen. Die Pilze, die zum Beispiel Fußpilz verursachen, sind niedere Pilze. Diese Pilze benötigen zur Bildung von Sporen keinen Fruchtkörper. Lässt man Lebensmittel wie Brot, Marmelade oder Obst längere Zeit stehen, beginnen sie zu schimmeln. Die dafür verantwortlichen Schimmelpilze sind ebenfalls niedere Pilze. Einige Arten können krebserregende Stoffe, die Aflatoxine erzeugen. Entgegen der landläufigen Meinung, es reiche bei verschimmelten Lebensmitteln die verschimmelte Oberfläche abzutragen, steht die Erkenntnis gegenüber, dass die giftigen Stoffe sehr schnell bis tief in die Nahrung eindringen. Verschimmelte Lebensmittel sollten also immer direkt weggeworfen werden.


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April 16th, 2013
von Eulbergs Heimische Gefilde

ameisenDas Reich der Insekten ist gigantisch. Etwa 1 Millionen Insektenarten sind bisher beschrieben worden, im Vergleich dazu gerade mal 5500 Säugetierarten. 10000 Ameisenarten gibt es allein. Stellte man alle Ameisen der Welt auf eine Waagschale und alle Menschen auf die andere, so sind die Ameisen tatsächlich schwerer. Sie sind die erfolgreichste Gruppe aller Insekten. Seit über 140 Millionen Jahren besiedeln sie unseren Planeten: von den tropischen Wäldern bis zum Polarkreis, vom Hochgebirge bis zur Wüste. Ohne Ameisen könnten viele andere Lebewesen nicht existieren. Sie zählen zu den wichtigsten Akteuren in unseren Ökosystemen. Sie lagern mehr Bodenmaterial um als Regenwürmer, halten Schädlinge unter Kontrolle, sind für die Verbreitung vieler Pflanzen unabkömmlich und stellen selbst für viele Tiere eine wichtige Nahrungsquelle dar.

Ameisen gehören wie Wespen, Bienen oder Termiten zu den staatenbildenden Insekten. Voraussetzung eines Staates sind Arbeitsteilung, also Gliederung in Beruf und Einschränkung der Freiheit des Einzelnen zu Gunsten des Gemeinwohls. Genau dies tun Ameisen in unglaublich ausgeklügelten und raffinierten Systemen. Ihre Selbstorganisation und Informationsübertragung untereinander fasziniert nicht nur Biologen, sondern unter dem Stichwort Schwarmintelligenz auch Wirtschaftswissenschaftler und Informatiker. Sie betreiben Ackerbau wie die Blattschneideameise, die Pilzkulturen anlegt und diese mit organischen Stoffen versorgt. Sie halten Sklaven, wie die selbst arbeitsunfähige Amzonenameise, die Larven raubt und sich diese als Untertanen hält. Oder sie betreiben Viehzucht, mit Blattläusen; füttern diese, pflegen und melken sie.

Die meisten Ameisenarten leben in ausgeklügelten Bauten, mit verschieden Kammern, wie Brutkammer, Speisekammer, Müllkammer und Friedhöfen. Es gibt verschiedenste Formen von Ameisenbauten. Am geläufigsten sind uns Erdnester mit Streukuppeln, die wir gemeinhin als Ameisenhaufen bezeichnen. Diese von Waldameisen gebauten Nester, erreichen einen Durchmesser von bis zu 3 Metern, 2 Meter Höhe und sind auch genau so tief. Durch ein intelligentes Be- und Entlüftungssystem, bei dem Öffnungen an der Oberfläche des Baus nachts geschlossen und morgens geöffnet werden, sowie durch ein regelmäßiges Umschichten des äußeren Baumateriales, verhindert man eine Verpilzung des Baus. Es gibt aber auch nomadisch lebende Ameisenarten wie die tropische Treiberameise. Sie leben in riesigen Kolonien bis zu 20 Millionen Individuen. Treibnetzartig bejagen sie eine Fläche von bis zu 1000 qm, und töten alle Tiere die nicht fliehen oder anderweitig sich schützen können.

Man teilt die Ameisen eines Staates in drei Kasten ein: Die erste Kaste bilden die geschlechtlich aktiven Weibchen, die Königinnen, die die Nachkommen erzeugen und am größten sind. Die zweite Kaste bilden die flügellosen, unfruchtbaren Arbeiterinnen, die alle anderen Aufgaben übernehmen. Die dritte Kaste sind die Männchen. Diese werden auch gebraucht, aber nur zur Fortpflanzung. Sie sind die geflügelten Prinzen uns verlassen zusammen mit den geflügelten Prinzessinnen im Frühjahr in Schwärmen den Bau. Nach der Paarung, die im Flug stattfindet, sterben die Männchen und die Weibchen werfen ihre Flügel ab und gründen eigene Kolonien oder kehren in den elterlichen Bau zurück. Beim Hochzeitsflug empfängt die Jungkönigin viele Millionen Samenzellen, die für ihr ganzes Leben ausreichen müssen. Der Ameisenstaat besteht also nahezu ausschließlich aus Weibchen, die Männchen spielen lediglich eine Rolle bei der Besamung.

Eine Königin produziert von Ende März bis Anfang September ca. 300 Eier pro Tag, im Jahr 50.000 und im Laufe ihres mehr als 20-jährigen Lebens etwa einen Million. Um dies leisten zu können, muss sie vom Hofstaat gepflegt und mit hochwertiger Nahrung gefüttert werden. Dies erledigen die Arbeiterinnen, die in jungen Jahren im „Innendienst“ (im oder am Nest), als ältere Tiere im „Außendienst“ tätig sind. Am Beispiel der Roten Waldameise konnte man 10 Innendienst- und 8 Außendienstberufe feststellen.

Der Innendienst besteht aus Weckerinnen, die ihre Winterstarre weit oben im Nest verbracht haben und daher zeitig von der Frühlingswärme geweckt wurden. Sie transportieren die noch schlafende Tiere nach oben, wo sie dann aufwachen. Im Frühjahr sind auch Wärmeträgerinnen tätig. Bei den ersten Sonnenstrahlen sieht man sie sich als Sonnentrauben auf dem Bau formieren. Dann lassen sie sich von der Sonne aufwärmen und tragen anschließend diese Wärme in die tieferen Regionen des Nestes. Es gibt Speichertiere. Diese wurden im Herbst gemästet, von den Speichertier- Pflegerinnen bewacht und umsorgt und dienen nun als lebender Futterspender für Prinz und Prinzessin, die im Frühjahr zeitig das Nest verlassen. Ist der Kropf der Speichertiere leer, dienen sie wieder als Arbeiterinnen. Brutpflegerinnen haben die vielfältigste und zeitaufwendigste Tätigkeit. Sie kümmern sich um die Eier, Larven und Puppen; reinigen, füttern sie und transportieren sie in die Kammer mit der jeweils günstigsten Temperatur und Luftfeuchte. Dann gibt es noch spezielle Königspflegerinnen, mit großer Verantwortung, denn der Verlust der Königin kann zum Sterben des ganzen Staates führen. Nestreinigerinnen sind für die Sauberkeit zuständig. Diese Putzfrauen sammeln Speisereste, und sonstige Abfälle und schaffen sie aus dem Nest oder verstauen sie in Müllkammern. Sie sind auch als Bestattungsunternehmen tätig. Wichtig sind auch die Nestbauerinnen, die Gänge offenhalten oder schließen, für die Umschichtung des Baus sorgen und das Nest instand halten. Wenn vom Außendienst gelieferte Nahrung zu groß ist, wird sie von den Beutezerlegerinnen mundgerecht zerkleinert und dann an die Brutpflegerinnen abgegeben. Die Wächterinnen warnen bei Gefahr die Nestbewohner, die dann Brut und Königin in Sicherheit bringen und das Nest verteidigen. Sie kontrollieren ankommende Ameisen und können anhand von Körpergeruch feststellen, ob es Nestangehörige sind.

Im Außendienst haben Jägerinnen den mühsamsten und gefährlichsten Job. Sie greifen Beutetiere an, töten diese mit ihrem Gift und schleppen sie zum Nest. Einfacher haben es da die Sammlerinnen. Sie sammeln Blütennektar, Polen und Samen. Dann gibt es noch Blattlausmelkerinnen und Blattlauswächterinnen. Diese sind für die Blattlausherden zuständig. Die Straßenbauerinnen legen Wege an, auf denen die Nahrung transportiert wird. Straßenwächterinnen, stürzen sich bei Annäherung eines Feindes auf ihn und rufen Artgenossen zur Hilfe. Nestmaterialbeschafferinen suchen überall nach Pflanzenteilen zum Bau der Nestkuppel. Trägerinnen sind Arbeiterinnen, die ihre Artgenossen ergreifen und ins Haupt- oder Nebennest transportieren. Dies dient zur Regulation der Mengenverhältnisse in den einzelnen Nestern.

All diese beeindruckenden Leistungen und Aufgabenteilungen, die ein Ameisenstaat vollbringen kann, werden als Sachwarmintelligenz bezeichnet. Die einzelne Ameise ist neuronal sehr begrenzt ausgestattet und besitzt auch nur ein sehr begrenztes Verhaltens- und Reaktionsrepertoire. Gerade diese Begrenzung macht aber die erstaunliche Selbstorganisation von Ameisen erst möglich. Denn dadurch, dass die Ameisen ihre Aufgaben sehr zielgerichtet erledigen, behindern sie sich nicht untereinander, sondern unterstützen und ergänzen ihre Tätigkeiten. Auf diese Weise erschaffen sie im Verbund Nestkonstruktionen, die für eine einzelne Ameise absolut unmöglich wäre. Das ganze System basiert nur auf einem regen Informationsaustausch zwischen den einzelnen Ameisen, der größtenteils über Duftstoffe stattfindet, den Pheromonen, die sie über ihre Antennen wahrnehmen können. Einen Oberbefehlshaber der alles leitet gibt es nicht, das System organisiert sich also selbst. Die Natur selber, ist hier das was die Intelligenz besitzt.

Übrigens, sieht man Ameisen ihre Arbeiten stets hastig ausführen. Gemächlichkeit kennen sie nicht. Diesem ausgereiften Arbeitseifer, der Emsigkeit, verdenken Ameisen (von Emsen) ihren Namen.


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März 17th, 2013
von Eulbergs Heimische Gefilde

gepard 1Die Natur hält immer wieder faszinierende Anpassungen an Lebensräume bereit, die durch permanente Selektion immer extremer geworden sind. Dadurch kommt es zu beachtlichen Rekorden im Tierreich.

Pfuhlschnepfen zum Beispiel halten den Rekord im längsten Flug ohne Pause: Bis zu neun Tagen Flug ohne einen Fuß auf den Boden zu setzen, ohne Futter oder Schlaf hat man bei Ihnen beobachten können. Von Alaska nach Neuseeland  non-stop, etwa 11.700 Kilometer. Den Rekord der längsten Zugstrecke hält die Küstenseeschwalbe. Sie macht zwar Pausen während ihrer Wanderung, legt aber über 40.000 Kilometer auf ihrem Weg vom Brutgebiet an der Küste Grönlands und Alaskas bis zum Winterquartier in der Antarktis zurück. Vögel halten auch noch einen anderen Rekord, so ist der Wanderfalke das schnellste Tier der Welt: Wenn er aus großer Höhe im Sturzflug auf seine Beute zusteuert, erreicht er  eine Spitzengeschwindigkeit von 350 Kilometern pro Stunde. An Land ist der Gepard der schnellste: Er kann bis zu 110 km/h sprinten.

Während manche Menschen häufig eine Lesehilfe benötigen, um ein Buch zu lesen, könnte dies der Turmfalke theoretisch noch aus einer Entfernung von 30 Metern, wenn er denn lesen könnte. Er kann sogar aus 1,5 Kilometern Entfernung noch eine Maus erkennen. Eine ähnlich gute Sehleistung hat der Adler, nicht umsonst werden gute Augen auch als „Adleraugen“ bezeichnet. Die größten Augen im Tierreich, finden sich im Kopf des Koloss-Kalmars. Sie haben einen  Durchmesser von 27 cm und sind damit dreimal so groß wie die Augen von Blauwalen. Die Sehkraft wird durch dieGröße zwar kaum verbessert, jedoch die Lichtempfindlichkeit. So können Koloss-Kalmare ihre Feinde, die Pottwale, auch in der finsteren Tiefsee früh genug erkennen und fliehen, da diese durch ihre Bewegung kleine biolumineszierende Meerestiere aufscheuchen.

Auch was den Geruchssinn angeht, schneidet der Mensch im Vergleich zum Tier deutlich schlechter ab. Bereits Hunde können viel besser riechen als der Mensch und werden nicht umsonst als Spürhunde eingesetzt: Während der Mensch bis zu 10 Millionen Riechsinneszellen hat, hat ein Hund 200 Millionen. Das beste Riechorgan hat jedoch der Aal: Würde man einen Tropfen Blut in einen sehr großen See mischen, könnte der Aal, auch wenn er sich genau am anderen Ende befindet, diesen immer noch wahrnehmen. Diese Fähigkeit spielt im Leben des Aals eine große Rolle: Er wird im West-Atlantik geboren und finden von dort seinen Weg in unsere Flüsse. Zum Laichen schwimmen die Aale an die Stelle zurück, an der sie geboren werden. Um diesen Weg von mehreren tausend Kilometern zu finden, ist ein außergewöhnlichen Geruchssinn von Nöten.

Das lauteste Tier der Welt ist der Pistolenkrebs: Mit seiner Schere erzeugt er einen wahnsinnig lauten Knall, der bis zu 200 Dezibel laut sein kann. Zum Glück lebt er im Wasser, was den Knall etwas abdämpft. An Land wäre er nämlich erheblich lauter als ein Düsenjet, dessen Lärm im Bereich von gerade mal 120 Dezibel liegt. Mit der Knallschere stößt der Pistolenkrebs einen Wasserstrahl aus, der eine Luftblase bildet. Wenn diese implodiert wird neben dem Knall ein Lichtblitz erzeugt und Temperaturen von über 4000 Grad Celsius entstehen. Mit der entstandenen Druckwelle kann der Pistolenkrebs Beute betäuben, Feinde abwehren und sich mit Rivalen duellieren.

Das stärkste Tier auf der Welt ist nicht etwa ein Raubtier oder ein Elefant. Man muss die Kraft, die Tiere aufbringen können in Relation zu ihrer Körpergröße betrachten. Dann sind bereits Ameisen stärker als Elefanten: Sie wiegen selbst nur wenige Milligramm, können aber das Dreißig- oder Fünfzigfache ihres Gewichtes tragen. Ihre geringe Körpergröße ermöglicht ihnen ihre außergewöhnlichen Kräfte. Auch bei Gewichthebern im Sport sieht man das: Schwergewichtler können nur etwas das Doppelte ihres Körpergewichts stemmen, Fliegengewichtler bereits das Dreifache. Das liegt daran, dass die Muskelkraft proportional zu der Querschnittsfläche eines Muskels ist. Kleinere Tiere haben damit relativ zu ihrem Körpergewicht stärkere Muskeln. Dieser Relation Beachtung schenkend, ist das stärkte Tier der Welt die Tropische Hornmilbe. Sie selbst misst nur einen Millimeter, kann aber das 1200-Fache ihres Körpergewichts tragen.

Das größte Tier der Erde ist der Blauwal: bis zu 30 Meter wird er lang und wiegt 150.000 Kilogramm. Bereits seine Nachkommen sind riesig, die größten Jungtiere der Welt: 6-8 Meter lang, bei 2-3 Tonnen Gewicht. Generell können Tiere, die im Wasser leben, mehr Masse entwickeln, da der Auftrieb im Wasser sie entlastet. Allerdings sind der Größe auch Grenzen gesetzt. Bereits beim Blauwal muss das Herz enorm stark sein, um die Nährstoffe über das Blut auf den riesigen Körper
zu verteilen. Außerdem braucht der Blauwal riesige Mengen an Futter, das kostet Energie und das Futterangebot ist begrenzt.

Doch der Blauwal hält auch noch einen weiteren Rekord: Er ist nicht nur der Größte, er hat auch den größten: bis zu drei Meter lang und dreißig Zentimeter im Durchmesser wird der Penis des Blauwals. Doch im Vergleich zu ihrer Körpergröße hat die Entenmuschel einen noch größeren: Ihr Fortpflanzungsorgan ist fünfmal so lang wie sie selbst. Diese Größe ist auch notwendig, denn die Entenmuscheln sind sesshafte Tiere und können sich nicht auf ihren Sexualpartner zu bewegen.

Der Blauwal ist zwar das größte Tier, das größte Lebewesen der Welt ist jedoch ein Pilz. Pilze sind weder Pflanzen noch Tiere, sondern stellen ein eigenes Reich dar. Was man allgemeinsprachlich als Pilz bezeichnet und verzehrt ist nur seine Frucht. Der Großteil eines Pilzes befindet sich unter der Erde. Es ist ein Geflecht aus wurzelähnlichen Fäden, das Myzel genannt wird. Der größte Pilz derErde wurde im Jahr 2000 im Malheur National Forest in Oregon USA entdeckt: Ein Hallimasch, dessen Myzel sich über neun Quadratkilometer erstreckt. Das entspricht einer Fläche von etwa 1200 Fußballfeldern. Um diese Größe zu erreichen benötigte er 2400 Jahre. Trotz diesen stattlichen Alters ist dieser Pilz nicht das älteste Lebewesen auf der Erde. Diesen Rekord hält ein antarktischer Riesenschwamm, der bereits seit über 10.000 Jahren wächst und damit vor der menschlichen Geschichtsschreibung geboren wurde. Das beeindruckende zwei Meter große Exemplar wurde in den 80er auf dem Meeresboden in der Antarktis entdeckt.


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Schneeglöckchen

     Eingetragen am
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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 438

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 439

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 440

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 441

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 442

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 443

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 444

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 447

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 411

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 428

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 429

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 430

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 431

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 432

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 433

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 434

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 435

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 436

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 437

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 438

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 439

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 440

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 441

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 442

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 443

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 444

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 447
März 17th, 2013
von Eulbergs Heimische Gefilde

’s war doch wie ein leises Singen
In dem Garten heute Nacht,
Wie wenn laue Lüfte gingen:
»Süße Glöcklein, nun erwacht,
Denn die warme Zeit wir bringen,
Eh’s noch jemand hat gedacht.« -
’s war kein Singen, ’s war ein Küssen,
Rührt’ die stillen Glöcklein sacht,
Dass sie alle tönen müssen
Von der künft’gen bunten Pracht.
Ach, sie konnten’s nicht erwarten,
Aber weiß vom letzten Schnee
War noch immer Feld und Garten,
Und sie sanken um vor Weh.
So schon manche Dichter streckten
Sangesmüde sich hinab,
Und der Frühling, den sie weckten,
Rauschet über ihrem Grab.


(Joseph von Eichendorff 1788-1857)