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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 107

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 109

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 111

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 113

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 138

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 107

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 109

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 111

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 113

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 138

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 107

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 109

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 111

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 113

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 138

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 113

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 138

Spektivblick
Dominik Eulberg, mit allem was dazugehört.


Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 43

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 43
 
Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 107

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 109

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 111

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 113

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 138
Tiere und Töne
 
Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 107

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 109

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 111

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 113

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 138
Gedicht

Die Täuschungs-Blume

Mit etwas Glück findet man in unseren Gefilden eine wunderschöne Orchidee mit prachtvollen Blüten: die Ragwurz. Betrachtet man ihre farbenfrohen, großen Blüten genauer, meint man in ihrer Mitte ein sitzendes Insekt zu erkennen…

Doch dies ist nur Teil ihrer raffinierten Bestäubungstaktik. Denn die Blütenlippe stellt die Nachahmung eines weiblichen Insekts dar. Männliche Insekten lassen sich täuschen und übertragen den Pollen während einer sogenannten Pseudokopulation von einer Pflanze zur nächsten.. Dieses Phänomen wird Sexualtäuschung genannt. Verblüffende Details, wie Fühler und Flügel, werden dabei von der Orchidee nachgeahmt. Die Spiegel-Ragwurz imitiert zum Beispiel mit ihren blau-glänzenden Blütenlippen sogar die blau-schillernden Flügel der Campsoscolia-Wespenweibchen, ihrer Bestäuber-Art.

So besitzt jede einzelne Ragwurzart ein ganz spezielles Insekt, welches für die Bestäubung sorgt, wie man auch an ihren Artnamen erkennt: Wespen-Ragwurz, Fliegen-Ragwurz, Spinnen-Ragwurz , Hummel-Ragwurz oder Bienen-Ragwurz.

Nicht nur Form und Farbe des Insektes werden imitiert, sogar feinste Härchen werden nachgeahmt.  Je nach Ausrichtung der Behaarung erkennt ein männliches Insekt, wo “vorne” und “hinten” bei einem Weibchen ist. Die Ausrichtung der Behaarung bei den Orchideen-Blüten entscheidet daher darüber, ob der Bestäuber “kopf-voran” oder “schwanz-voran” mit den Blüten zu kopulieren versucht

Neben diesen optischen Tricks werden die männlichen Insekten durch ganz spezifische Sexuallockstoffe angeködert. Dabei imitieren die Sexualtäuschungs-Blumen exakt den Geruch von paarungsbereiten Weibchen und lösen daher das gleiche Such- und Kopulationsverhalten aus wie die entsprechenden weiblichen Düfte. Raffinierterweise nutzen die Orchideen die Tatsache aus, dass männliche Insekten aus Revierabsteckungs-Gründen, meist vor den Weibchen schlüpfen. So liegt ihre Blütezeit exakt in dieser Zeit des „Männerüberschusses“.  Denn danach sind ihre Waffen wirkungslos, die männlichen Insekten begnügen sich dann nicht mehr mit den plumpen „Gummipuppen“-Blüten.

Nicht einmal einen Schluck Nektar bekommen die geneppten Männchen für ihren unfreiwilligen Einsatz in Sachen Reproduktion. Trotzdem fallen sie immer wieder auf die Täuschung herein. Denn eine weitere Cleverness der Ragwurz ist die, dass jede einzelne Pflanzen unterschiedliche Blütenmuster besitzt, so wie sich bei uns Menschen jedes Gesicht sehr unterschiedlich aussieht. Dies hat zur Folge, dass die männlichen Insekten denken, „mit der hab ich’s noch nicht versucht“ und so immer wieder auf die Täuschungs-Blumen hereinfallen.

Dennoch unterliegen viele „verführte“ Männchen irgendwann nicht mehr dem Schwindel. So werden schätzungsweise nur 10 % der jeweiligen Population bestäubt. Da aber jede Pflanze bis zu 12.000 winzige Samen erzeugt, ist dies ausreichend und die Geschichte von den Blümchen und Bienchen beginnt jedes Jahr von neuem…

Mit etwas Glück findet man in unseren Gefilden eine wunderschöne Orchidee mit prachtvollen Blüten: die Ragwurz. Betrachtet man ihre farbenfrohen, großen Blüten genauer, meint man in ihrer Mitte ein sitzendes Insekt zu erkennen…

Doch dies ist nur Teil ihrer raffinierten Bestäubungstaktik. Denn die Blütenlippe stellt die Nachahmung eines weiblichen Insekts dar. Männliche Insekten lassen sich täuschen und übertragen den Pollen während einer sogenannten Pseudokopulation von einer Pflanze zur nächsten.. Dieses Phänomen wird Sexualtäuschung genannt. Verblüffende Details, wie Fühler und Flügel, werden dabei von der Orchidee nachgeahmt. Die Spiegel-Ragwurz imitiert zum Beispiel mit ihren blau-glänzenden Blütenlippen sogar die blau-schillernden Flügel der Campsoscolia-Wespenweibchen, ihrer Bestäuber-Art.

So besitzt jede einzelne Ragwurzart ein ganz spezielles Insekt, welches für die Bestäubung sorgt, wie man auch an ihren Artnamen erkennt: Wespen-Ragwurz, Fliegen-Ragwurz, Spinnen-Ragwurz , Hummel-Ragwurz oder Bienen-Ragwurz.

Nicht nur Form und Farbe des Insektes werden imitiert, sogar feinste Härchen werden nachgeahmt. Je nach Ausrichtung der Behaarung erkennt ein männliches Insekt, wo “vorne” und “hinten” bei einem Weibchen ist. Die Ausrichtung der Behaarung bei den Orchideen-Blüten entscheidet daher darüber, ob der Bestäuber “kopf-voran” oder “schwanz-voran” mit den Blüten zu kopulieren versucht

Neben diesen optischen Tricks werden die männlichen Insekten durch ganz spezifische Sexuallockstoffe angeködert. Dabei imitieren die Sexualtäuschungs-Blumen exakt den Geruch von paarungsbereiten Weibchen und lösen daher das gleiche Such- und Kopulationsverhalten aus wie die entsprechenden weiblichen Düfte. Raffinierterweise nutzen die Orchideen die Tatsache aus, dass männliche Insekten aus Revierabsteckungs-Gründen, meist vor den Weibchen schlüpfen. So liegt ihre Blütezeit exakt in dieser Zeit des „Männerüberschusses“. Denn danach sind ihre Waffen wirkungslos, die männlichen Insekten begnügen sich dann nicht mehr mit den plumpen „Gummipuppen“-Blüten.

Nicht einmal einen Schluck Nektar bekommen die geneppten Männchen für ihren unfreiwilligen Einsatz in Sachen Reproduktion. Trotzdem fallen sie immer wieder auf die Täuschung herein. Denn eine weitere Cleverness der Ragwurz ist die, dass jede einzelne Pflanzen unterschiedliche Blütenmuster besitzt, so wie sich bei uns Menschen jedes Gesicht sehr unterschiedlich aussieht. Dies hat zur Folge, dass die männlichen Insekten denken, „mit der hab ich’s noch nicht versucht“ und so immer wieder auf die Täuschungs-Blumen hereinfallen.

Dennoch unterliegen viele „verführte“ Männchen irgendwann nicht mehr dem Schwindel. So werden schätzungsweise nur 10 % der jeweiligen Population bestäubt. Da aber jede Pflanze bis zu 12.000 winzige Samen erzeugt, ist dies ausreichend und die Geschichte von den Blümchen und Bienchen beginnt jedes Jahr von neuem…

Eine Antwort zu “Die Täuschungs-Blume” (Klicken, um zu verstecken)»

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