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Spektivblick
Dominik Eulberg, mit allem was dazugehört.


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Gartenarbeit
 
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Buchtipp des Monats August: Brehms Tierleben.

Warum Musik uns glücklich macht…

Warum Musik uns glücklich macht

Warum Musik uns glücklich macht

Musik ist älter als Sprache.

Wir wissen heute, dass beim Musizieren der älteste Teil unseres Hirns, das Großhirn aktiv ist. Beim Sprechen hingegen nur ein jüngerer Seitenlappen. Wir haben ein Stimmorgan, was es uns ermöglicht über 3 bis 4 Oktaven Töne von uns zu geben, zum sprechen brauchen wir aber gerade einmal eine. Schlaganfallpatienten können häufig nicht mehr sprechen, aber noch musizieren. Dies alles sind Indizien darauf, dass der Mensch schon musizierte bevor er die Sprache entwickelte. Emotionen und Gefühle wurden mit Tonfolgen aus dem Kehlkopf mitgeteilt, ähnlich wie Tiere das heute noch machen. Vereinfacht gesagt: Traurigkeit wurde in Moll-Tonfolgen mitgeteilt, Freude in Dur.

Heute besitzen wir zwar eine hoch-komplexe Sprache und modernste Kommunikationskanäle wie Handy, E-Mail und Internet, doch verstehen wir diese Botschaften immer noch. Dieses tonale Langzeitgedächtnis ist auch heute noch der Grund warum manche Musik uns glücklich und manche Musik uns traurig macht. Diese Wahrnehmung ist so in unsere Gene übergegangen, dass sogar Menschen die nie Kontakt zur westlichen Musik hatten, diese Botschaften verstehen.

Ein weiteres Beispiel für unser evolutionäres Langzeitgedächtnis der Töne ist das Geräusche was entsteht wenn man mit einer Gabel über einen Teller kratzt oder Kreide an der Tafel abbricht. Es stellen sich uns die Nackenhaare auf und ein Gefühl des Unbehagens tritt ein. Der Grund dafür liegt weit zurück: als der Mensch noch in Wäldern und Savannen lebten, gab es eine Affenart die bei Gefahr durch Raubtiere ein Geräusch absonderte welches diesem der kratzenden Gabel sehr ähnelt. Der Mensch wurde darauf konditioniert: Gefahr, aufpassen und in Fluchtstellung gehen!

Musik kann zu dem als sozialer Klebstoff unserer Gesellschaft angesehen werden. Durch das gemeinsame singen und musizieren wurde und wird das Gruppengefühl gestärkt, die Basis unserer Gesellschaft. Sogar die Gehirnwellen der Musizierenden schwingen im Gleichklang. Unser Körper belohnt dies mit Ausschüttungen des Glückshormons Endorphin und Dopamin. Nach einer Weile kommen noch Serotonin und Noradrenalin hinzu, die eine antidepressive Wirkung haben. Auch geringere Mengen des Stresshormons Cortisol werden produziert. Musizieren entspannt, bringt die Emotionen ins Gleichgewicht, macht wacher und aufmerksamer, glücklicher. Zudem kommt es zur einer Bildung von Abwehrstoffen, die zu einer Stärkung des Immunsystems führen.

Auch das Gefühl und die Freude für Rhythmus ist etwas was uns allen inne wohnt. So findet man auf der ganzen Welt Kulturen die alle unabhängig voneinander dem 4/4 Takt frönen. Die Freude an diesem monotonen Rhythmus auf den man sich stundenlang bewegen möchte rührt wohl daher, dass wir im Mutterleib als erstes den gleichförmigen Herzschlag der Mutter hören. Der gerade Rhythmus erinnert uns also an eine ganz ursprüngliche Glückseligkeit.

Schlagworte: , , , ,

6 Antworten zu “Warum Musik uns glücklich macht…” (Klicken, um zu verstecken)»

  1. Bernd Willimek sagte:

    Warum klingt Moll traurig?

    Das größte Problem bei der Beantwortung der Frage, warum Moll traurig klingt, dürfte wohl in der Tatsache liegen, dass Moll auch manchmal nicht traurig klingt. Die Lösung dieses Problems ist die Strebetendenz-Theorie. Sie sagt, dass Musik überhaupt keine Emotionen vermitteln kann, sondern nur Willensvorgänge, mit denen sich der Musikhörer identifiziert. Beim Vorgang der Identifikation werden die Willensvorgänge dann mit Emotionen gefärbt.

    Bei einem Durakkord in bestimmtem harmonischen Kontext identifiziert sich der Hörer beispielsweise mit einem Willensinhalt, der in etwa der Aussage “Ja, ich will” entspricht. Ein Mollakkord – in bestimmtem Kontext gespielt – bewirkt dagegen die Identifikation mit einem Willensinhalt, der in etwa der Aussage “Ich will nicht mehr” entspricht. So kann dieser Willensinhalt “Ich will nicht mehr” beispielsweise als traurig oder als wütend erfahren werden, je nachdem, ob ein Mollakkord relativ laut oder leise gespielt wird. Wir unterscheiden hier genauso, wie wir unterscheiden würden, wenn jemand die die Worte “Ich will nicht mehr” einmal leise und einmal laut schreiend von sich geben würde. Ähnliche Identifikationsvorgänge kann man übrigens beobachten, wenn wir einen spannenden Film anschauen und uns mit den Willensvorgängen unserer Lieblingsfigur identifizieren. Auch hier erzeugt erst der Vorgang der Identifikation Emotionen.

    Da der Umweg der Emotionen über Willensvorgänge in der Musik nicht erkannt wurde, scheiterten auch alle musikpsychologischen und neurologischen Versuche, die Ursache der Emotionen in der Musik zu ergründen. Der Erfolg dieser Versuche würde in etwa einem Menschen entsprechen, der einen Fernsehapparat aufschraubt und darin mit der Lupe nach den Emotionen sucht, die er zuvor beim Ansehen eines Films empfunden hatte.

    Doch wie kann Musik Willensvorgänge vermitteln? Diese Willensvorgänge haben etwas mit dem zu tun, was alte Musiktheoretiker mit Vorhalt, Leitton oder Strebetendenz bezeichnet haben. Wenn wir diese musikalische Erscheinungen gedanklich in ihr Gegenteil umkehren, dann haben wir in etwa den Willensinhalt umrissen, mit dem sich der Musikhörer identifiziert. In der Praxis wird dann alles noch etwas komplizierter, so dass sich auch konkretere Willensinhalte musikalisch darstellen lassen.

    Weitere Informationen erhalten Sie über den kostenlosen Download des E-Book der Universität München “Musik und Emotionen – Studien zur Strebetendenz-Theorie”:

    http://ebooks.ub.uni-muenchen.de/26791/

    Bernd Willimek

  2. Bernd Willimek sagte:

    Zum Thema “Musik und Emotionen” verweise ich auf den fünfteiligen Artikel “Warum klingt Moll traurig? Die Strebetendenz-Theorie erklärt das Gefühl in der Musik”. Er wurde letzte Woche im Online-Magazin “musik heute” publiziert und kann unter folgendem Link kostenlos heruntergeladen werden:
    http://www.musik-heute.de/tags/strebetendenz-theorie/
    Bernd Willimek

  3. Bernd Willimek sagte:

    Da ich mehrfach gebeten wurde, das Prinzip der Strebetendenz-Theorie auf eine Weise darzustellen, so dass sie auch ein Laie mühelos nachvollziehen kann, füge ich dem obenstehenden Artikel eine solche Erklärung bei. Sie ist unter folgendem Link kostenlos abrufbar:
    http://www.willimekmusic.de/erklaerung-strebetendenz-theorie.pdf
    Bernd Willimek

  4. Bernd Willimek sagte:

    Zur Strebetendenz-Theorie gibt es jetzt einen Wikipedia-Artikel:

    http://www.de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strebetendenz-Theorie

    Bernd Willimek

  5. Kubiak sagte:

    Wowwwwww!!!!!!!!Echt Tolllllllllll!!!!!!!!!Yessss!!!!!

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