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Spektivblick
Dominik Eulberg, mit allem was dazugehört.


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Urformen der Kunst – Wundergarten der Natur
 
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Als er sich auf einem stillen Örtchen befand

Piranhas in der Erft

Piranhas in der ErftDie Erft ist auf den ersten Blick ein ganz gewöhnlicher Fluss Mitteldeutschlands. Das 107 km lange Gewässer entspringt im Ahrgebirge der Eifel und mündet bei Neuss in den Rhein. Doch eines Tages schockte die Bild-Zeitung mit der Schlagzeile „Vorsicht! Piranhas in der Erft!“. Denn Angler zogen insgesamt drei Piranhas dieser südamerikanischen Fische aus der Erft, zuletzt ein 50 cm langes Exemplar. Doch wie kommen solche exotischen Tiere in die Erft und wie können sie hier überleben?

Der erste Teil der Frage ist leicht zu beantworten, weil Piranhas in vielen Zoogeschäften zum Kauf angeboten werden. Wird man der gekauften Tiere überdrüssig, ist der Weg zum nächsten Gewässer meist nicht weit. Sind die ehemaligen Hausgenossen einmal in der Erft gelandet, ist es durchaus möglich, dass sie zumindest eine Zeit lang überleben. Denn der Unterlauf des Flusses führt vergleichsweise warmes Wasser. Im Winter, wenn benachbarte Bäche bereits gefrieren, betragen die mittleren Wassertemperaturen der unteren Erft noch 15°C. Im Sommer kann die Temperatur auf 28°C ansteigen.

Die Erft schlängelt sich durch ein Gebiet in dem Braunkohle abgebaut wurde und wird. Unterhalb von Erftstadt wird dem Fluss warmes Sümpfungswasser zugeführt. Das ist Grundwasser, dass aus mehreren hundert Metern zur Trockenhaltung des Braunkohlenabbaus abgepumpt wird und dann mit Temperaturen von bis zu 24 °C in die Erft eingeleitet wird. Jährlich werden so 520 Millionen Kubikmeter aufgewärmtes Grundwasser aus dem Tagebau Hambach dem Fluss zugeführt. Hinzu kommt noch weiteres, aufgewärmtes Wasser aus dem Braunkohlekraftwerk Frimmersdorf.

Das warme Wasser ermöglicht Wärme liebenden Pflanzen und Tieren aus den Tropen oder Subtropen das Überleben, teilweise sogar die Vermehrung. So wurden in der Erft bis dato Populationen von 12 exotische Pflanzenarten nachgewiesen. Sie stammen ebenso wie die Piranhas aus Aquarien. Seit den 1960er Jahren findet man hier zum Beispiel eine in Indien beheimatete Rotalge, deren Triebe meterlang werden können. Auffällig sind auch die dichten Bestände des brasilianischen Wasser-Tausendblatts und der südamerikanischen Dichtblättrigen-Wasserpest, beides beliebte Aquarienpflanzen.

Auch unter den Tieren gibt es neben den Piranhas Neubürger. Neben bunten Guppys und Rotwangenschildkröten, kann man auch Blaubandbärblinge, ein karpfenänhlicher Fisch aus dem östlichen Russland, oder den aus Nordamerika stammenden Sonnenbarsch finden. Ausgesetzte Schmuckschildkröten nutzen die Erft als winterliches Rückzugsgebiet. Auch den Wärme liebenden Getigerten Strudelwurm kann man hier zahlreich finden. Weitere Neubürger sind nordamerikanische Kamberkrebse, chinesische Wollhandkrabben, Istrische Asseln oder asiatische Körbchenmuscheln. Die meisten Zuwanderer schaffen es jedoch nicht, sich dauerhaft in der Erft zu etablieren, so auch die Piranhas.

Das warme Getümmel hat jedoch seinen Preis, denn die Wassersituation der Erft ist wahrlich vermurkst und im wahrsten Sinne des Wortes „auf Pump“. Denn die Erft ist nur wegen des Sümpfungswassers überhaupt noch ein Fließgewässer. Wenn der Tagebau eines schönen Tages stillgelegt wird, fällt sie trocken. Denn wegen jahrzehntelangen Abpumpens hat der Fluss seinen Anschluss an den gesunkenen Grundwasserspiegel längst verloren. Durch Zuführung des Grundwassers aus dem Kohleabbau wurde die Erft ein wasserreicher Fluss. Einst führte die Erft noch 5 qm Wasser in der Sekunde ab, zu Hochzeiten des Abbaus über 26 qm. Nach der Stilllegung wird die Erft zu einem kleinen Flüsschen mit einer Wasserführung von weniger als 3 qm Wasser in der Sekunde werden, zu wenig für ihr „aufgepumptes“ Flussbett. Um nicht völlig zu versiegen wird man ihr ein neues Bett anlegen müssen, in dem sie auch mit weniger Wasser weiter fließen kann. Dann wird sie wieder zu einem ganz bescheidenen, gewöhnlichen Flüsschen Mitteldeutschlands.

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