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Spektivblick
Dominik Eulberg, mit allem was dazugehört.


Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

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Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 113

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Der Panther
 
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Die Streuobstwiese: Vielfalt erhalten – Lebensräume schaffen – Besonderes genießen

Fledermäuse

Square-townsend-fledermausSie sind nach Insekten, Dinosauriern und Vögeln die vierte Tiergruppe die erfolgreich den Luftraum für sich erobert haben, die Fledermäuse. Sie sind die einzigen Säugetiere, die aktiv fliegen können. Seit über 50 Millionen Jahren bevölkern sie anatomisch unverändert unseren Planeten, und machen mit ihren raffinierten Echoortungsrufen die Nacht zum Tage. Über 1100 verschiedene Arten gibt es weltweit. Darunter sind Insektenfresser, Früchte- und Blätterfressende Arten genauso wie Arten, die Blüten bestäuben, kleine Wirbeltiere fressen und auch die berühmten bluttrinkenden Vampirfledermäuse von denen es aber nur 3 Arten in Mittel- und Südamerika gibt. In Deutschland gibt es aber nur Insektenfresser. Nach momentanem Stand sind es 24 Fledermausarten die in unseren Nachthimmeln jagen. Die kleinste hier lebende Art ist die streichholzschachtelgroße Mückenfledermaus, die es gerade einmal auf 3-8 Gramm Körpergewicht bringt, bis hin zum Großen Mausohr welches eine Flügelspannweite von über 40 cm erreicht.

 

Der Name Fledermaus kommt vom mittelhochdeutschen Vledermus und bedeutet soviel wie “Flattermaus”. Und obwohl es keine Mäuse sind, sehen sie doch einer Maus sehr ähnlich, zumindest das Gesicht. Da bereits im althochdeutschen die Fledermäuse mit “Mustro” (mausähnliches Tier) bezeichnet wurden, hat sich der Name erhalten, auch wenn Fledermäuse eigentlich mit Maulwurf und Igel verwandt sind. Die biologische Ordnung der Fledertiere heißt “Chiroptera”, was aus dem griechischen stammt und so viel bedeutet wie “Handflügler”. Denn Fledermäuse fliegen mit den Händen. Anders als bei den Vögeln sind ihre Finger und Mittelhandknochen nicht zurückgebildet, sondern voll in die Flughaut integriert. Auf diese Weise ist der gesamte Flügel sehr beweglich und der Flug der Fledermäuse dadurch sehr viel manövrierfähiger als der der Vögel. Mit Hilfe ihres raffinierten Echo-Ortungssystems können sie sich auch in völliger Dunkelheit zurecht finden und Beute jagen. Ausgestoßene Ultraschallwellen werden von Objekten reflektiert und dienen als imaginäre Umgebungskarte. Das Ortungssystem arbeitet so genau, dass sie sogar Objekte erkennen können, die kleiner als 0,2 Millimeter sind. Auf diese Weise erbeuten die emsigen Jäger unzählige Insekten. Eine einzelne Wasserfledermaus fängt etwa bis zu 5000 Mücken pro Nacht und eine Kolonie von 500 Großen Mausohren verputzen unglaubliche eine Tonne Käfer pro Sommer. Da Fledermäuse im Gegensatz zu Eulen kein Restlicht benötigen um sich zu orientieren, sind sie in der Lage Lebensräume wie Höhlen zu erschließen, in denen sich nachaktive Vögel nicht mehr zurecht finden. Somit gehen sie möglichen Fressfeinden aus dem Weg.

Fledermäuse hängen wenn sie sich ausruhen auf dem Kopf, und dies ohne Kopfschmerzen zu bekommen: Ihr nervöses System ist daran angepasst, dass den Tieren das Blut nicht in den Kopf sackt, wenn sie sich von der Decke hängen lassen. Fledermäuse können ihre Körpertemperatur regulieren, um so Energie zu sparen. So fallen sie fast täglich in eine Tageslethargie bei der die Körpertemperatur auch mal auf 15°C abfallen kann. Im Winterschlaf kann die Körpertemperatur sogar auf 1°C abfallen. Während des Winterschlafes kommt es auch meist zu der Begattung. Männchen wachen kurz auf und kopulieren mit der Dame ihrer Wahl. Romantik sieht anders aus. Damit das Jungtier nicht im Winter geboren wird, kommt es zu einer verzögerten Befruchtung: der Samen der Männchen kann mehrere Monate im Fortpflanzungstrakt der Weibchen aufbewahrt werden. Erst bei günstiger Witterung beginnt der Fötus in der Gebärmutter zu wachsen. Nach Beendigung des Winterschlafes, etwa Ende März, wandern die Fledermäuse in ihre Sommerquartiere. Dabei suchen sich die Männchen meist Tagesquartiere, die als Ausgangspunkt für die Jagd dienen. Die Weibchen finden sich zu sogenannten Wochenstuben zusammen, in denen die Jungtiere geboren und gemeinsam aufgezogen werden

 

Fledermäuse können sehr alt werden. Die älteste bekannte Fledermaus ist 40 Jahre alt gewesen. Vergleicht man das mit Maus oder Hamster, die eine ähnliche Größe haben ist das enorme Alter wirklich erstaunlich und zeigt wie gut die Tiere an ihren Lebensraum angepasst sind.

 

Da Fledermäuse gerade mal ein Junges pro Jahr zur Welt bringen, können sich ihre Bestände kaum von veränderten Umweltbedingungen erholen. So fallen aktuell viele Tiere, den wie Pilze aus dem Boden sprießenden Windkraftanlagen zum Opfer. Zum einen sind sie mit ihrem Ortungssystem nicht in der Lage die rasant drehenden Rotorblätter einzuschätzen, zum anderen reicht oft schon der enorme Luftdruck der Propeller um die Organe der filigranen Tiere zu zerquetschen. Als Lebensraum nutzen Fledermäuse in unseren Breiten, wie kaum ein anderes wildlebendes Säugetier, unserer Häuser. Manche Arten sind sogar darauf angewiesen. Dies führt natürlich immer wieder zu Konflikten, weshalb der NABU die Aktion “Fledermäuse Willkommen!” ins Leben gerufen hat. Auch ich engagiere mich als ehrenamtlicher Fledermausbotschafter für den Schutz der liebenswerten Tiere. Mehr Infos unter: www.fledermäuse-willkommen.de

2 Antworten zu “Fledermäuse” (Klicken, um zu verstecken)»

  1. locke sagte:

    Leider haben sie einen schlechten Ruf…ich persönlich finde diese Tiere absolut faszinierend, wie viele Säugetiere können schon fliegen?

    Schöner Artikel!

    lg

  2. Mario Reiß sagte:

    Toller Artikel, Dominik! Gefällt mir sehr gut, zumal wir in direkt an einer Kirche wohnen und es hier sehr viele Fledermäuse gibt. Interessiere mich daher für die Tiere.

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