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Spektivblick
Dominik Eulberg, mit allem was dazugehört.


Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

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Sommerbild
 
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Schmetterlinge: Betrachtungen, Erzählungen, Gedichte

Hör mal wer da hämmert….

421px-Great_spotted_woodpeckerEs ist ein schöner Spätsommertag. Ich spaziere durch den Wald und vernehme das maschinengewehrartige Trommeln eines Buntspechtes. Doch warum trommeln die Kletterkünstler überhaupt? Und warum bekommen sie dabei keine Kopfschmerzen?

 

Spechte sind optimal an ihren Lebensraum im Wald angepasste Vögel. Beim Klettern an Bäumen bieten spezielle Kletterfüße Halt. Die kurzen Füße besitzen in der Regel paarig gestellte Zehen mit kräftigen Krallen, von den zwei nach vorn und zwei nach hinten gerichtet sind. Eine davon ist eine Wendezehe, die je nachdem, ob der Vogel herauf- oder hinunterklettert umgeklappt werden kann. Der Schwanz ist keilförmig mit steifen, spitzen Steuerfedern geformt und dient beim Klettern als Stützschwanz, so etwas wie ein dritter Fuß, der dem Specht am Stamm Sicherheit und Halt gibt. Der kräftige Meißelschnabel dient zur Nahrungssuche, aber auch zum Bau von Höhlen. Findet sich in einer Ritze ein Insekt, fahren die Spechte ihre lange Schleuderzunge aus und spießen die Beute mit Widerhaken auf.

 

Wenn Buntspechte wirbelnd auf den Ast schlagen, dann tun sie es nicht, um Insekten oder Käferlarven zusammenzutrommeln. Buntspechte trommeln, weil ihnen die Sprache fehlt. So wie Amsel, Drossel, Fink und Star ihren Gesang einsetzen, so benutzt der Buntspecht das Trommeln als Signal. Trommeln bedeutet: hier bin ich zuhause, oder es bedeutet: ich suche ein Weibchen – oder ein Männchen. Getrommelt wird nämlich von weiblichen und männlichen Buntspechten. Wer gehört werden will, der benötigt ein weithin tönendes Instrument. Im Wald sind das gewöhnlich Äste mit einem guten Resonanzkörper, gelegentlich kann es auch ein Baumstamm sein. Es kommt aber auch mal vor, das der Specht eine Dachrinne oder einen Rolladen als geeignetes „Megaphon“ missbraucht. Die Trommelwirbel der verschiedenen Spechtarten sind sehr unterschiedlich. Rhythmus, Länge, Schlagzahl der Wirbel sowie der zeitliche Abstand zwischen den Schlägen ist charakteristisch für die einzelnen Arten. So klingen etwa die knurrenden, oft unterbrochenen, sehr langen Trommelwirbel des Kleinspechtes ganz anders als die kurzen Wirbel des Buntspechts.

 

Buntspechte sind nicht nur Symbol für den lebendigen Wald. Spechte schließen für viele Tierarten den Wald überhaupt erst auf. Wo sollten Kohl- und Tannenmeise brüten, wo der Sperlingskauz, gäbe es keinen Buntspecht, der ihnen Höhlen zimmerte? Wo brütete die Hohltaube, wo hätte das Eichhörnchen seine Wochenstube oder auch der Siebenschläfer ohne den Buntspecht und seine Verwandten? Überhaupt hätten all die Höhlenbewohner von der Waldmaus und den Fledermäusen bis zu den Bienen kein Zuhause.

 

Bis zu 12000 Mal pro Tag schlägt ein fleißiger Specht seinen Schnabel pro Tag auf Holz und es erstaunt, dass sein Gehirn durch diese Schläge keinen Schaden nimmt. Ein Specht kann bis zu 20 Schläge pro Sekunde ausführen, jeder Schlag ist vergleichbar mit einem Aufprall des Schnabels mit 25 km/h gegen eine Wand, wobei Abbremsungskräfte von bis zu 1200 G wirksam werden können. Das ist eine mehrere hundert Mal größere Krafteinwirkung als Astronauten bei einer Landung aus dem All auszuhalten haben. Doch warum zum Teufel bekommen Spechte trotz all dem keine Kopfschmerzen?  Zum einen ist das Gehirn der Spechte von besonders wenig Gehirnflüssigkeit umgeben. Ihr Gehirn sitzt also relativ starr im Schädel und wird durch die beim Klopfen entstehenden Schockwellen nicht von innen gegen die Schädeldecke geschleudert, wodurch eine Gehirnerschütterung vermieden wird. Zudem ist der Schädel von auffallend starken Muskeln umgeben, die als Stoßdämpfer dienen. Wie bei einem Boxer, der einen Schlag herannahen sieht, werden diese Muskeln kurz vor dem Aufprall gegen das Holz angespannt und absorbieren so einen Großteil der Energie. Außerdem wird die Klopfbewegung extrem geradlinig ausgeführt, gewissermaßen „aus der Schulter heraus“. Dadurch bleiben Hals und Kopf zu einander starr, so dass nur geringe Kräfte wirken können. Schließlich schließt ein Specht eine Millisekunde vor dem Aufprall die Augen, und schützt sie so vor umherfliegenden Holzspänen.

 

Buntspechte mögen Früchte, vor allem Kirschen oder Erdbeeren, Insektenlarven und Ameisen. Im Herbst und Winter jedoch, wenn die Insekten fort sind und die Ameisen sich in der Erde verbergen, dann muss der Buntspecht andere Nahrung suchen. Er sammelt Nüsse und Fichtenzapfen. Um die Leckereien zu öffnen benutzt der clevere Vogel sogenannte Schmieden. Nüsse oder Zapfen werden hinter Rindenschuppen geklemmt und die Frucht gekonnt herausgemeißelt.

 

Im Frühjahr, wenn in den Baumrinden der Saft steigt, schlagen Spechte die Saftbahnen an. Dann quillt Saft heraus und den trinken sie für ihr Leben gerne. An warmen Tagen fließen bei Birken, Eschen oder Hainbuchen ganze Ströme den Stamm hinab. Wenn man Büchern trauen kann, dann sind Buntspechte wahre Schluckspechte. Aber sachte, keine Unterstellungen, der konsumierte Baumsaft ist frisch, süß und unvergoren. Das mit den ewig trunkenen Schluckspechten ist wirklich üble Nachrede…

3 Antworten zu “Hör mal wer da hämmert….” (Klicken, um zu verstecken)»

  1. MauZ sagte:

    Und wieder mal ein Klasse Beitrag von dir DJ Owlie.
    Absolut interessant und besonders unterhaltsam geschrieben.
    Ich kann gar nicht mehr genau sagen, was und wieviel ich schon alleine durch dich, über die Pflanzen und Tiere in unseren Heimischen Gefilden sowie dieser doch sehr interessanten Tierart (dem Vogel) alles auf diesem Weg gelernt habe.
    Früher konnte ich mich ehrlich gesagt auch kein Stück für solche Dinge begeistern. Heute hingegen wünschte ich mir manchmal sogar, dass ich damals in der Schule schon besser aufgepasst hätte, um nicht jetzt erst alles mühselig nachholen zu müssen.
    Ich finde es Ausserdem auch sehr faszinierend, wie du es zudem immer wieder fertig bringst, dein Wissen über diese Dinge mit deiner Musik zu vereinen, Sie dabei in Einklang bringst und miteinander verschmelzen lässt und uns so dann im wahrsten Sinne des Wortes, mit auf einer deiner Abenteuerlichen Spaziergänge durch die Natur und deren Wälder nimmst.
    Deshalb möchte ich mich auch an dieser Stelle einmal recht Herzlich bei dir dafür bedanken.

    Nice Greetings,
    Kevin

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