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Spektivblick
Dominik Eulberg, mit allem was dazugehört.


Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

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feuersalamander
 
Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

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Wildbienen: Die anderen Bienen

„Brenzlich, brenzlich“ dachte der Feuersalamander

salamander2Behäbig und furchtlos stapf ein etwa 20 Zentimeter langes, schwarz glänzendes Wesen mit leuchtend gelbem Muster auf dem Rücken über den Waldboden; mit einer fast schon arroganten Gemütlichkeit, als könne ihm nichts und niemand etwas anhaben.

Und tatsächlich, der Feuersalamander braucht niemanden zu fürchten, er hat keine natürlichen Fressfeinde. Grund dafür ist ein übel beißendes Hautdrüsensekret mit dem Hauptgift Samandarin, welches er je nach Angriffsstärke  schaumartig über spezielle Ohrendrüsen oder Drüsensporen auf dem Rücken absondert. Lässt der Angreifer nicht locker, kann der Salamander das Drüsensekret aktiv bis zu einem Meter weit spritzen. Jeder Angreifer der einmal seine  Erfahrung mit dem beißenden Sekret gemacht hat, wird nie wieder einen Feuersalamander anrühren. Seine leuchtend gelbe „Wahntracht“ wird ihn schon von weitem davon abhalten: „Achtung giftig!“. Zudem dient das Hautdrüsensekret der Hemmung von Bakterien- und Pilzwachstum auf der feuchten Haut.Feuersalamander erreichen so ein erstaunliches Alter von bis zu 50 Jahren.

Das gelblich bis orangefarbene, gepunktete bis gestreifte Muster der Feuersalamander ist bei jedem Tier anders, wie ein individueller Fingerabdruck. Durch dieses auffällige Erscheinungsbild ist der Feuersalamander seit langer Zeit den  Menschen vertraut. Auf Grund seiner behäbigen, furchtlosen Fortbewegung war man der Meinung dem Tier könne nichts und niemand etwas antun. Auch vor Feuer habe es keine Angst, sei gar mit seinem Hautsekret dazu in der Lage  Brände zu löschen. Brach im Dorf ein Feuer aus, gingen die Menschen in den Wald um Salamander zu sammeln, die sie dann in die lodernden Flammen warfen, mit der Hoffnung der mutige Salamander bekämpfe das Feuer. Diesem  verhängnisvollen Irrtum verdankt der Feuersalamander seinen Namen.
Feuersalamander sind typische Laubwaldbewohner. In der Dämmerung werden sie erst aktiv und jagen Nachts alles was sie finden können: Würmer, Schnecken, Käfer, Asseln. Nur an verregneten, kühlen Tagen, bei typischem  „Salamanderwetter“, verlassen sie auch tagsüber ihr Versteck. Ihr Lebensraum, ist dabei eng an klare, sauerstoffreiche Fließgewässer gebunden. Solche Quellbäche braucht der Salamander zur Jungenaufzucht. Denn im Gegensatz zu den meisten anderen europäischen Lurchen werden keine Eier, sondern voll entwickelte, kiemenatmende Larven in die Gewässer abgesetzt. In diesen fischfreien Oberläufen, entwickeln sie sich innerhalb weniger Monate zu lungenatmenden  Landtieren.

In der letzten Zeit ist jedoch auch ein Verhalten von Feuersalamandern beobachtet worden, ihre Larven in stehende Gewässer, wie Tümpel, Gräben oder Pfützen abzulegen. Grund dafür ist wohl das saubere Quellbäche immer seltener  werden. Zudem besteht nicht die Gefahr in den fischreicheren Unterlauf der sonst üblichen Fließgewässer abgedriftet zu werden. Allerdings besteht die Gefahr einer Austrocknung. Interessanterweise paaren sich nur solche Salamander
untereinander die entweder in stehende oder fließende Gewässer geboren wurden, obwohl sie noch ein und die selbe Art sind.

Einige Populationen von Feuersalamandern in Südeuropa können zum Teil fertig entwickelte Jungsalamander gebären, die sofort terrestrisch leben und somit völlig entkoppelt von Gewässern sind. Dies kann als Anpassung an  trockenwarmes Klima und die damit verbundene Gewässerknappheit verstanden werden. Bei anderen, in Höhlen lebenden Populationen von Feuersalamandern, verweilen die Tiere ihr Leben lang im aquatischen Larvenstadium und  erlangen dennoch Geschlechtsreife.

3 Antworten zu “„Brenzlich, brenzlich“ dachte der Feuersalamander” (Klicken, um zu verstecken)»

  1. Jonathan sagte:

    Toller Beitrag — wie immer Herr Eulberg.

    Soll das “stapf” in der ersten Zeile eigentlich ein “stapft” sein?

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