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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 111

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 107

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 138

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Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 113

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Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 113

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Spektivblick
Dominik Eulberg, mit allem was dazugehört.


Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

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Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

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Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 107

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 109

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 111

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 113

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/link-template.php on line 138
Bienengedicht
 
Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

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Das Insektenhotel: Naturschutz erleben Bauanleitungen Tierporträts Gartentipps

Wie sich Tiere im Raum orientieren

zugvogel

Die meisten Tiere sind nicht sesshaft sondern bewegen sich auf völlig unterschiedliche Art und Weisen durch unsere schöne Welt. Dies bringt einige Vorteile mit sich: sie können Orte aufsuchen, die für sie bessere Lebensbedingungen  aufweisen, wie eine größere Nahrungsverfügbarkeit, ein geringeres Räuberrisiko, mehr Paarungspartner, bessere klimatische Bedingungen und somit höhere Anpassungsfähigkeit auf Umweltveränderungen. Dabei benutzen Tiere die unterschiedlichsten Methoden sich zu orientieren. Einige davon beherrschen wir Menschen auch, andere sind uns vollkommen fremd, wie zum Beispiel der Bienentanz oder der biologische Kompass der Zugvögel.
Bienen können sich allein mit Hilfe einer inneren Karte orientieren, die sie sich durch Erinnerungen und Zusammenfügen von Landmarken im Kopf zusammenbasteln. So finden sie immer wieder ihren Stock. Zusätzlich verfügen Bienen über einen Sonnenkompass. Dieser spielt eine wichtige Rolle, um ihren Stockgenossinnen die Entfernung und Richtung einer zuvor entdeckten Nahrungsquelle mitzuteilen. So unglaublich es klingt, aber eine Biene beschreibt ihren Mitbewohnern den Weg zu neu entdeckten Blütenpollen, indem sie ein komplexes Tänzchen aufführt. Ist die Futterquelle weniger als 100 Meter entfernt, macht sie es sich einfach und tanzt den so genannten Rundtanz: immer im Kreis herum. In welcher Richtung sich die Nahrung befindet, gibt sie dabei nicht an. Je länger die Biene jedoch tanzt, desto ergiebiger ist die Futterquelle.

Bei weiter Entfernung, führt sie den komplexen Schwänzeltanz auf, wobei sie mit dem Hinterteil hin und her schwingt. Mehrere Schritte schwingend geradeaus bezeichnen die Richtung. Je länger die Mittellinie ist, auf der sie schwänzelt, desto weiter entfernt ist auch die Nahrungsquelle. Die Qualität der Futterquelle wird über die Geschwindigkeit ihres Tänzchens mitgeteilt. Je öfter sie ihren Tanz vollführt, desto ergiebiger ist die Quelle. Tänzelt die Biene auf einem waagerechten Untergrund, gibt die Richtung der Mittellinie die Richtung der Futterquelle an. Sitzt sie aber auf einer senkrecht hängenden Wabe, nutzt sie die Sonne als Kompass. Hierbei tanzt sie im selben Winkel zur Senkrechten, der sich zwischen Sonne und Futterquelle befindet. Dabei zeigt die Senkrechte zur Sonne. So wissen die Stockgenossinnen, in welcher Richtung sie fliegen müssen, um die Futterquelle zu finden.

Doch nicht nur die Sonne dient Tieren als Kompass. Mit Hilfe von Sternen, Mond und dem Magnetfeld der Erde, können Tiere auch unabhängig von Landmarken ihr Ziel ansteuern. Nachtziehende Zugvögel und vermutlich auch andere nachtaktive Tiere besitzen zum Beispiel einen Sternenkompass. Hierbei dient der Polarstern als Fixpunkt, um den sich von der Erde aus gesehen alle anderen Sterne scheinbar drehen. Strandflohkrebse besitzen einen angeborenen  Mondkompass. Tagsüber benutzen sie die Sonne und bei Nacht den Mond, um auf Stränden Zonen mit optimaler

Vor allem von Zugvögeln als Kompass benutzt, ist das Magnetfeld der Erde. Seine Feldlinien verlassen die Erde am nördlichen Magnetpol und treten am südlichen wieder in sie ein. Dabei zeigen die Felder an den Polen in größeren Winkeln von der Erde ab, als am Äquator. Anhand der Richtung und Neigung seiner Feldlinien können sich die Tiere orientieren.

Vögel, die einen Magnetkompass benutzen, können über Photopigmente im Auge das Magnetfeld der Erde wahrnehmen. Hierbei richten sich Moleküle relativ zur Richtung des Magnetfeldes aus. Bei Brieftauben weiß man außerdem, dass sie die Feldstärke und die Neigung der Feldlinien über paarige magnetische Körner (Magnetite) im Schnabel messen können. Diese besondere Ausstattung erlaubt es Zugvögeln erstaunliche Distanzen zurückzulegen, ohne sich zu verirren. Ein Musterbeispiel hierfür ist die auch an unseren Küsten vorkommende Küstenseeschwalbe, die teils sogar in der Arktis brütet und in der Antarktis überwintert. Dabei legt sie pro Jahr bis zu 50.000 Kilometer zurück.

Häufig sind es aber Sonnen- und Magnetkompass zusammen, denen sich Tiere bedienen um ihren Weg zu finden. Ein erstaunliches Beispiel hierfür ist der Monarchfalter. Er überwintert in einem kleinen Waldgebiet in Mexiko in der Sierra Nevada. Vor der Rückreise in den Norden paaren sich die Monarchfalter. Während eines Sommers durchlaufen sie 3-5 Generationen im Norden. Die letzte Generation reist dann wieder nach Mexiko. Das bedeutet, dass alle Informationen über das Zielgebiet in ihrem Nervensystem genetisch verankert sein müssen.

Flussaale kannte man lange nur als ausgewachsene Tiere. Wo sie herkamen, blieb ein Rätsel, das in früherer Zeit gar zu der fantasiereichen Vermutung Anlass gab, Aale entstünden aus den Schwanzhaaren von Pferden. Erst nachdem man entdeckt hatte, dass die Jungtiere in der Regel vom Meer in die Flüsse kamen, und die geschlechtsreifen Tiere von den Flüssen ins Meer zogen, suchte man im Meer nach dem Laichplatz der Tiere. Man fand ihn im Atlantischen Ozean an der Ostküste Amerikas, um die 3000 Seemeilen von Europas Küsten entfernt. Von dort ziehen sie nach Europa. Wenn sie die Flüsse hier erreicht haben, sind die Aale schon etwa vier Jahre alt. Sie finden den Weg hierhin mithilfe der  Magnetfeldlinien. Wenn sie die Küste erreichen, hilft ihnen ihr Geruchssinn weiter die entsprechenden Flussmündungen zu finden.

Dies ist nur ein Teil der Fähigkeiten, die Tiere besitzen, um sich in ihrer Umwelt zu orientieren. Andere Tiere benutzen Schallwellen, haben einen besonders ausgeprägten Hörsinn, erkennen das Polarisationsmuster des Himmels, sehen UV-Licht oder speichern jede ihrer Bewegungen so genau ab, dass sie durch instinktive Umrechnung immer auf dem schnellsten geraden Weg nach Hause finden, auch wenn sie auf dem Hinweg zickzack und in Kreisen gelaufen sind. Und dann gibt es ja noch uns Menschen: Wir haben unsere feinen instinktiven Sinne vielleicht ein wenig verloren, dafür aber eine Menge an technischen Hilfsmitteln wie Navigationssysteme, IPhone und Co erfunden und entwickelt, die uns eine Orientierung überall möglich machen.

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