Spektivblick
Dominik Eulberg, mit allem was dazugehört.

Archiv für die ‘Naturblock Magazin’ Kategorie


Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 43

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 43

„Brenzlich, brenzlich“ dachte der Feuersalamander


Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 107

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 109

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 111

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 411

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 428

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 429

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 430

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 431

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 432

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 433

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 434

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 435

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 436

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 437

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 438

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 439

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 440

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 441

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 442

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 443

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 444

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 447

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 411

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 428

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 429

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 430

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 431

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 432

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 433

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 434

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 435

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 436

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 437

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 438

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 439

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 440

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 441

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 442

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 443

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 444

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 447
Donnerstag, Januar 10th, 2013

salamander2Behäbig und furchtlos stapf ein etwa 20 Zentimeter langes, schwarz glänzendes Wesen mit leuchtend gelbem Muster auf dem Rücken über den Waldboden; mit einer fast schon arroganten Gemütlichkeit, als könne ihm nichts und niemand etwas anhaben.

Und tatsächlich, der Feuersalamander braucht niemanden zu fürchten, er hat keine natürlichen Fressfeinde. Grund dafür ist ein übel beißendes Hautdrüsensekret mit dem Hauptgift Samandarin, welches er je nach Angriffsstärke  schaumartig über spezielle Ohrendrüsen oder Drüsensporen auf dem Rücken absondert. Lässt der Angreifer nicht locker, kann der Salamander das Drüsensekret aktiv bis zu einem Meter weit spritzen. Jeder Angreifer der einmal seine  Erfahrung mit dem beißenden Sekret gemacht hat, wird nie wieder einen Feuersalamander anrühren. Seine leuchtend gelbe „Wahntracht“ wird ihn schon von weitem davon abhalten: „Achtung giftig!“. Zudem dient das Hautdrüsensekret der Hemmung von Bakterien- und Pilzwachstum auf der feuchten Haut.Feuersalamander erreichen so ein erstaunliches Alter von bis zu 50 Jahren.

Das gelblich bis orangefarbene, gepunktete bis gestreifte Muster der Feuersalamander ist bei jedem Tier anders, wie ein individueller Fingerabdruck. Durch dieses auffällige Erscheinungsbild ist der Feuersalamander seit langer Zeit den  Menschen vertraut. Auf Grund seiner behäbigen, furchtlosen Fortbewegung war man der Meinung dem Tier könne nichts und niemand etwas antun. Auch vor Feuer habe es keine Angst, sei gar mit seinem Hautsekret dazu in der Lage  Brände zu löschen. Brach im Dorf ein Feuer aus, gingen die Menschen in den Wald um Salamander zu sammeln, die sie dann in die lodernden Flammen warfen, mit der Hoffnung der mutige Salamander bekämpfe das Feuer. Diesem  verhängnisvollen Irrtum verdankt der Feuersalamander seinen Namen.
Feuersalamander sind typische Laubwaldbewohner. In der Dämmerung werden sie erst aktiv und jagen Nachts alles was sie finden können: Würmer, Schnecken, Käfer, Asseln. Nur an verregneten, kühlen Tagen, bei typischem  „Salamanderwetter“, verlassen sie auch tagsüber ihr Versteck. Ihr Lebensraum, ist dabei eng an klare, sauerstoffreiche Fließgewässer gebunden. Solche Quellbäche braucht der Salamander zur Jungenaufzucht. Denn im Gegensatz zu den meisten anderen europäischen Lurchen werden keine Eier, sondern voll entwickelte, kiemenatmende Larven in die Gewässer abgesetzt. In diesen fischfreien Oberläufen, entwickeln sie sich innerhalb weniger Monate zu lungenatmenden  Landtieren.

In der letzten Zeit ist jedoch auch ein Verhalten von Feuersalamandern beobachtet worden, ihre Larven in stehende Gewässer, wie Tümpel, Gräben oder Pfützen abzulegen. Grund dafür ist wohl das saubere Quellbäche immer seltener  werden. Zudem besteht nicht die Gefahr in den fischreicheren Unterlauf der sonst üblichen Fließgewässer abgedriftet zu werden. Allerdings besteht die Gefahr einer Austrocknung. Interessanterweise paaren sich nur solche Salamander
untereinander die entweder in stehende oder fließende Gewässer geboren wurden, obwohl sie noch ein und die selbe Art sind.

Einige Populationen von Feuersalamandern in Südeuropa können zum Teil fertig entwickelte Jungsalamander gebären, die sofort terrestrisch leben und somit völlig entkoppelt von Gewässern sind. Dies kann als Anpassung an  trockenwarmes Klima und die damit verbundene Gewässerknappheit verstanden werden. Bei anderen, in Höhlen lebenden Populationen von Feuersalamandern, verweilen die Tiere ihr Leben lang im aquatischen Larvenstadium und  erlangen dennoch Geschlechtsreife.


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Wie Tiere den Winter überleben


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Samstag, November 17th, 2012

Bird_in_SnowDie Tage werden kürzer, die Temperaturen sinken: Der Winter mit seinem erbarmungslosen Frost klopft an die Tür. Um während der Wintermonate nicht zu erfrieren oder zu verhungern, haben viele Tiere raffinierte Strategien entwickelt, die kalte Jahreszeit zu überstehen.

Viel Vögel machen es ganz clever, sie entfliehen einfach dem kalten Winter, verlassen ihre Brutgebiete und ziehen in den warmen Süden. Neben diesen Zugvögeln, wie etwa dem Kranich oder dem Storch, gibt es aber auch einige hartgesottene Genossen, sogenannte Standvögel, die den eisigen Winter bei uns ausharren. Vögel, die im Sommer vor allem Insekten fressen, steigen dann im Winter auf Samen und Körner um. So finden sie ausreichend Nahrung. Als „gleichwarme“ Tiere müssen Vögel versuchen ihre  Körpertemperatur, die zwischen 38 und 42 Grad Celsius liegt, aufrecht zu erhalten. Um dies zu gewährleisten plustern sie ihr Gefieder so stark auf, dass sie wie eine Federkugel aussehen. Diese Form ist kein Zufall, denn die Kugel ergibt im Verhältnis zum Körpervolumen die geringste Oberfläche, über die demnach auch die wenigste Wärme verloren geht. Das Gefieder wirkt dann wie eine dicke Daunenjacke mit Warmluftpolster.

Doch warum frieren unsere gefiederten Freunde nicht an ihren nackten Beinchen? Dies verhindert ein raffiniertes Wärmeaustauschsystem: das abwärtslaufende Blut gibt seine Wärme rechtzeitig an das in den Körper zurückfließende Blut ab und kühlt die Beine so auf fast Null Grad. Dies ist auch der Grund warum Enten zum Beispiel nicht auf dem Eis eines Gewässers anfrieren und ihre Füße trotzdem nicht absterben.

Neben Zug- und Standvögeln, gibt es noch sogenannte Strichvögel, die die Winter zwar in der Nähe ihrer Brutgebiete verbringen, ungünstigen Witterungszonen jedoch kleinräumig ausweichen. Als „Teilzieher“ gelten zum Beispiel Amsel, Rotkehlchen und Finken.

Für alle ungefiederten Tiere, stellt der Winter jedoch eine noch härtere Herausforderung dar. Der Boden ist hart gefroren und teilweise von Schnee bedeckt, Essbares ist für viele Tiere kaum noch zu finden. Die Natur hat für die schwierige Zeit eine simple aber auch geniale Strategie entwickelt: Viele Säugetiere verschlafen einfach den lebensfeindlichen Winter in kuscheligen Höhlen. Bereits im Spätsommer fangen die Winterschläfer, wie Murmeltier, Igel und Mäuse an sich ordentliche Fettpolster anzufuttern. Während des Winterschlafs nehmen sie dann keine Nahrung mehr auf und verlangsamen drastisch ihre Atmung, Herzschlag und Stoffwechsel um Energie zu sparen. So fällt auch die Körpertemperatur der Säugetiere immens. Der Igel etwa senkt seine Körpertemperatur während des 5 monatigen Winterschlafs von 33 Grad auf 1,5 Grad herab, seinen Herzschlag von 300 auf nur noch 18 Schläge pro Minute. Noch größere Langschläfer sind etwa der bekannte Siebenschläfer, der bis zu sieben Monate schläft und das in Gebirgen lebende Murmeltier das sogar bis zu 9 Monaten in kuscheligen Gruppen verschläft. Sein Herz schlägt statt hundertmal nur noch zwei- bis dreimal pro Minute und Atempausen können bis zu einer Stunde betragen. Zwischen den Schlafphasen wachen die Winterschläfer immer mal wieder kurz auf, um ihre Schlafposition zu ändern und Darm und Blase zu entleeren.

Es gibt auch Tiere, die anstatt eines Schlafes eine sogenannte Winterruhe halten. Zu ihnen zählen der Bär, das Eichhörnchen oder der Maulwurf. Diese Tiere haben sich weniger Winterspeck angefressen, beziehungsweise  einen Vorrat gesammelt. Im Vergleich zu den Winterschläfern sinken Körperfunktionen und Körpertemperatur nicht ganz so drastisch herab. Sie erwachen öfter aus ihrer Ruhe, um Nahrung zu sich zu nehmen, die sie etwa wie das Eichhörnchen sorgsam versteckt haben. Maulwürfe legen sich gar eine lebende Frischfleischkammer in ihrem Bau an. Sie sammeln Regenwürmer und beißen ihnen einfach den Kopf ab, damit sie nicht abhauen  können. Sollte es aber besonders kalt sein oder ein extremer Mangel an Nahrung bestehen, fallen sie in eine tiefere Ruhe, um so Kräfte zu sparen und nicht zu verhungern.

Neben den Tieren, die ruhen und schlafen, gibt es noch eine weitere Gruppe von Tieren, die in eine sogenannte Winterstarre fallen, hier werden als Lebensvorgänge auf Null runtergefahren. Dazu gehören Insekten, Amphibien, Reptilien sowie einige Fische. Da sie „wechselwarme“ Tiere sind, sinkt ihre Körpertemperatur mit der Außentemperatur völlig herab. Frösche vergraben sich im Schlamm oder suchen sich ein geeignetes Erdloch, Fische erstarren im Wasser und Insekten suchen unter Baumrinden Unerschlupf oder überdauern geschützt und inaktiv im Eigelege oder als Larve eingebohrt im Baumholz oder eingegraben im Boden den Winter.   Wechselwarme Tiere können ihren Körper nicht selbst erwärmen, nur mit dem Ansteigen der Außentemperatur erwachen sie wieder “zum Leben”. Dauert die Phase der Starre jedoch zu lange an oder erreicht der Winter zu tiefe Temperaturen, sterben sie und erwachen nicht mehr durch die wärmenden Sonnenstrahlen des Frühlings.

Viele Amphibien, Fische und Co überdauern den frostigen Winter am Boden eines Gewässers. Dass dies möglich ist verdanken sie einer besondere physikalische Eigenschaft des Wassers: Wasser hat bei 4 Grad seine höchste Dichte und sinkt deshalb zu Boden, kälteres Wasser dagegen ist leichter, bleibt an der Oberfläche und gefriert zu Eis. Dieser Umstand schützt das relativ wärmere Tiefenwasser vor einer weiteren Abkühlung und bietet so einen erträglichen Überwinterungsraum für die bei uns heimischen Wassertiere.

Manche Frösche und Insekten frieren gar im Winter mit ihrer Umgebung ein, ohne dabei zu grunde zu gehen. Normalerweise ist Frost tödlich, denn friert das Wasser in den Zellen und dem Gewebe der Organismen bilden sich Eiskristalle die die Zellstruktur sprengen. Manche Tiere besitzen jedoch ein Art Frotschutzmittel, dass zum Beispiel aus Glukose besteht. Diese Anti-Frost Moleküle haften sich an das Kristallgitter und ziehen freie Wassermoleküle an, die sich nun nicht mehr an der Kristallstruktur beteiligen können. Diese Prinizp ist uns vom Salzstreuen auf den Straßen bekannt. So überstehn sie auch Temperaturen weit unter dem Gefrierpunkt. Der  Zitronenfalterkann gar Temperaturen bis unter 20 Grad überstehen. Zum einen hat er Glyzerin als körpereigenes Frostschutzmittel. Damit kann die Körperflüssigkeit kaum gefrieren. Der zweite Trick ist, dass der Zitronenfalter zu Beginn des Winters einen Teil seiner Körperflüssigkeit ausscheidet. Er trennt sich von allem Wasser, welches er nicht unbedingt für seine Lebensvorgänge braucht. Wo kein Wasser ist, kann dann auch nichts gefrieren.

Einen skurrilen Trick die klirrenden Winter zu überstehen beherrscht der nordamerikanische Waldfrosch. Sie verkneifen sich das Pinkeln im Winter. Dadurch steigt die Konzentration an Harnstoff in den Körperzellen. Der Harnstoff wirkt als Frostschutzmittel und schützt so die Frösche vor dem Kältetod.


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Ähre, wem Ehre gebührt


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Samstag, Oktober 6th, 2012

winterweichweizen-arezzo1Bei einer Wanderung durch meine schöne Heimat, streift der Weg ein Getreidefeld. Wie funkelende Kunstwerke wiegen sich die Ähren in einem Meer aus goldenen Wellen im sanften Wind. Doch was ist das eigentlich genau Getreide? Wo kommt es her und warum ist es zu dem wichtigsten Nahrungsmittel für uns Menschen geworden?

Unter Getreide versteht man eine Gruppe von gezüchteten Gräserpflanzen, deren Samen, die Getreidekörner, wichtigster Bestandteil der menschlichen Nahrung sind. Das Wort Getreide kommt von dem mittelhochdeutschen getregede und bedeutet so viel wie das (von der Erde) Getragene. Ist das Korn reif, wird es geerntet, gedroschen, die „Spreu vom Weizen getrennt“, gemahlen und schließlich landet es als frisch gebackenes Brot auf unserem Frühstückstisch.

Sieben Gattungen gehören zur Getreidefamilie. Ohne die drei am meisten angebauten Sorten Reis, Mais und Weizen wäre es kaum möglich, die heutige Weltbevölkerung zu ernähren. Mit Roggen, Gerste, Hafer und Hirse gibt es noch vier weitere Getreidegattungen, die aber zusammen gerade mal rund 10 % der Weltgetreideproduktion ausmachen. Andere bekannte Namen wie Dinkel, Einkorn oder Emmer, die vor allem als Biogetreide vertrieben werden, sind Unterarten des Weizens.

Es existiert kein anderes Nahrungsmittel, das wir jeden Tag so ausgiebig verzehren und so vielseitig zubereiten wie Getreide. Schon im „Vater unser“ ist die Urbitte des Menschen verewigt: „Unser tägliches Brot gib uns heute“. Im Durchschnitt verzehrt ein Bundesbürger über 90 Kilogramm Getreideerzeugnisse pro Jahr. Der Grund warum Getreide für uns als Lebensmittel so unentbehrlich ist liegt in zwei Eigenschaften begründet:

Zum einen weil Getreide einen sehr ausgewogenen Nährstoffgehalt und eine extrem hohe Nährstoffdichte besitzt, da es nur zu 15 % aus Wasser besteht. Die restlichen 85 % bieten fast
alle zum Leben notwendigen Nähr- und Vitalstoffe. Es enthält hochwertiges pflanzliches Eiweiß, wichtige Kohlenhydrate, lebensnotwendige Fettsäuren, viele B-Vitamine für das Nervensystem sowie Mineralstoffe für ein gesundes Wachstum. Vor allem Eisen ist in Getreide reichlich vorhanden und kann so die Energiespeicher des Körpers effektiv auffüllen.

Zum anderen besitzt Getreide sehr gute Lagereigenschaften. Obwohl Getreide über mehrere Jahre gelagert werden kann, lässt sich aus den Kornfrüchten jeden Tag aufs Neue frisches Brot backen.

Getreide, das auf unseren Feldern wächst und gedeiht ist bereits seit Jahrtausenden keine natürliche Pflanze mehr, sondern ein durch menschliche Eingriffe manipuliertes Gras, aus der Familie der Süßgräser. Getreidesorten sind also Varianten und auch Mutationen von Gräsern. Es sind uralte, immer wieder beeinflusste Kulturpflanzen. Durch Züchtung und Kreuzung nimmt der Mensch Einfluss auf den Wuchs der Getreidearten, um möglichst große Pflanzen mit möglichst vielen Körnern zu züchten, die sich als möglichst resistent gegen Klimaschwankungen, Krankheiten und Schädlinge erweisen.

Das Ursprungsgebiet des Getreides liegt im Nahen Osten, dem Libanon, dem anatolischen und dem iranischen Bergland, im Gebiet des so genannten “Fruchtbaren Halbmondes“. Dort wuchsen die Getreidearten in der Periode der milden Winter. Getreide ist also ursprünglich keine in Europa beheimatete Frucht. Doch die Kulturgräser finden heute bei uns ähnliche Umweltbedingungen vor wie zu früheren Zeiten in ihren Ursprungsländern.

Vor über 10.000 Jahren, begann der Mensch hier systematisch Getreide anzubauen. Ackerbau und Viehzucht machten aus den nomadisierenden Sammlern und Jägern, die sich von Fleisch und essbaren Pflanzenteilen ernährten, sesshafte Bauern. Diese sogenannte neolithische Revolution kann als Initialstadium der menschlichen Hochkultur angesehen werden. Jede Hochkultur besitzt ihren ganz eigenen, an die jeweilige Region angepassten Getreideanbau. Die Reiskultur in Asien, die Maiskultur Amerikas, die Hirsekultur in Afrika, die Weizenkultur der Römer und die Gersten- und Roggenkultur der nordischen Völker. In West- und Mitteleuropa verbreitete sich der Getreideanbau vor rund 7000 Jahren.

Heutzutage sind China und die USA gefolgt von Indien die wichtigsten Anbauländer. Diese drei Länder alleine bauen knapp die Hälfte der gesamten Weltproduktion von Getreide an.


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Hör mal wer da hämmert….


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Mittwoch, August 15th, 2012

421px-Great_spotted_woodpeckerEs ist ein schöner Spätsommertag. Ich spaziere durch den Wald und vernehme das maschinengewehrartige Trommeln eines Buntspechtes. Doch warum trommeln die Kletterkünstler überhaupt? Und warum bekommen sie dabei keine Kopfschmerzen?

 

Spechte sind optimal an ihren Lebensraum im Wald angepasste Vögel. Beim Klettern an Bäumen bieten spezielle Kletterfüße Halt. Die kurzen Füße besitzen in der Regel paarig gestellte Zehen mit kräftigen Krallen, von den zwei nach vorn und zwei nach hinten gerichtet sind. Eine davon ist eine Wendezehe, die je nachdem, ob der Vogel herauf- oder hinunterklettert umgeklappt werden kann. Der Schwanz ist keilförmig mit steifen, spitzen Steuerfedern geformt und dient beim Klettern als Stützschwanz, so etwas wie ein dritter Fuß, der dem Specht am Stamm Sicherheit und Halt gibt. Der kräftige Meißelschnabel dient zur Nahrungssuche, aber auch zum Bau von Höhlen. Findet sich in einer Ritze ein Insekt, fahren die Spechte ihre lange Schleuderzunge aus und spießen die Beute mit Widerhaken auf.

 

Wenn Buntspechte wirbelnd auf den Ast schlagen, dann tun sie es nicht, um Insekten oder Käferlarven zusammenzutrommeln. Buntspechte trommeln, weil ihnen die Sprache fehlt. So wie Amsel, Drossel, Fink und Star ihren Gesang einsetzen, so benutzt der Buntspecht das Trommeln als Signal. Trommeln bedeutet: hier bin ich zuhause, oder es bedeutet: ich suche ein Weibchen – oder ein Männchen. Getrommelt wird nämlich von weiblichen und männlichen Buntspechten. Wer gehört werden will, der benötigt ein weithin tönendes Instrument. Im Wald sind das gewöhnlich Äste mit einem guten Resonanzkörper, gelegentlich kann es auch ein Baumstamm sein. Es kommt aber auch mal vor, das der Specht eine Dachrinne oder einen Rolladen als geeignetes „Megaphon“ missbraucht. Die Trommelwirbel der verschiedenen Spechtarten sind sehr unterschiedlich. Rhythmus, Länge, Schlagzahl der Wirbel sowie der zeitliche Abstand zwischen den Schlägen ist charakteristisch für die einzelnen Arten. So klingen etwa die knurrenden, oft unterbrochenen, sehr langen Trommelwirbel des Kleinspechtes ganz anders als die kurzen Wirbel des Buntspechts.

 

Buntspechte sind nicht nur Symbol für den lebendigen Wald. Spechte schließen für viele Tierarten den Wald überhaupt erst auf. Wo sollten Kohl- und Tannenmeise brüten, wo der Sperlingskauz, gäbe es keinen Buntspecht, der ihnen Höhlen zimmerte? Wo brütete die Hohltaube, wo hätte das Eichhörnchen seine Wochenstube oder auch der Siebenschläfer ohne den Buntspecht und seine Verwandten? Überhaupt hätten all die Höhlenbewohner von der Waldmaus und den Fledermäusen bis zu den Bienen kein Zuhause.

 

Bis zu 12000 Mal pro Tag schlägt ein fleißiger Specht seinen Schnabel pro Tag auf Holz und es erstaunt, dass sein Gehirn durch diese Schläge keinen Schaden nimmt. Ein Specht kann bis zu 20 Schläge pro Sekunde ausführen, jeder Schlag ist vergleichbar mit einem Aufprall des Schnabels mit 25 km/h gegen eine Wand, wobei Abbremsungskräfte von bis zu 1200 G wirksam werden können. Das ist eine mehrere hundert Mal größere Krafteinwirkung als Astronauten bei einer Landung aus dem All auszuhalten haben. Doch warum zum Teufel bekommen Spechte trotz all dem keine Kopfschmerzen?  Zum einen ist das Gehirn der Spechte von besonders wenig Gehirnflüssigkeit umgeben. Ihr Gehirn sitzt also relativ starr im Schädel und wird durch die beim Klopfen entstehenden Schockwellen nicht von innen gegen die Schädeldecke geschleudert, wodurch eine Gehirnerschütterung vermieden wird. Zudem ist der Schädel von auffallend starken Muskeln umgeben, die als Stoßdämpfer dienen. Wie bei einem Boxer, der einen Schlag herannahen sieht, werden diese Muskeln kurz vor dem Aufprall gegen das Holz angespannt und absorbieren so einen Großteil der Energie. Außerdem wird die Klopfbewegung extrem geradlinig ausgeführt, gewissermaßen „aus der Schulter heraus“. Dadurch bleiben Hals und Kopf zu einander starr, so dass nur geringe Kräfte wirken können. Schließlich schließt ein Specht eine Millisekunde vor dem Aufprall die Augen, und schützt sie so vor umherfliegenden Holzspänen.

 

Buntspechte mögen Früchte, vor allem Kirschen oder Erdbeeren, Insektenlarven und Ameisen. Im Herbst und Winter jedoch, wenn die Insekten fort sind und die Ameisen sich in der Erde verbergen, dann muss der Buntspecht andere Nahrung suchen. Er sammelt Nüsse und Fichtenzapfen. Um die Leckereien zu öffnen benutzt der clevere Vogel sogenannte Schmieden. Nüsse oder Zapfen werden hinter Rindenschuppen geklemmt und die Frucht gekonnt herausgemeißelt.

 

Im Frühjahr, wenn in den Baumrinden der Saft steigt, schlagen Spechte die Saftbahnen an. Dann quillt Saft heraus und den trinken sie für ihr Leben gerne. An warmen Tagen fließen bei Birken, Eschen oder Hainbuchen ganze Ströme den Stamm hinab. Wenn man Büchern trauen kann, dann sind Buntspechte wahre Schluckspechte. Aber sachte, keine Unterstellungen, der konsumierte Baumsaft ist frisch, süß und unvergoren. Das mit den ewig trunkenen Schluckspechten ist wirklich üble Nachrede…


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Fledermäuse


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Mittwoch, Juli 18th, 2012

Square-townsend-fledermausSie sind nach Insekten, Dinosauriern und Vögeln die vierte Tiergruppe die erfolgreich den Luftraum für sich erobert haben, die Fledermäuse. Sie sind die einzigen Säugetiere, die aktiv fliegen können. Seit über 50 Millionen Jahren bevölkern sie anatomisch unverändert unseren Planeten, und machen mit ihren raffinierten Echoortungsrufen die Nacht zum Tage. Über 1100 verschiedene Arten gibt es weltweit. Darunter sind Insektenfresser, Früchte- und Blätterfressende Arten genauso wie Arten, die Blüten bestäuben, kleine Wirbeltiere fressen und auch die berühmten bluttrinkenden Vampirfledermäuse von denen es aber nur 3 Arten in Mittel- und Südamerika gibt. In Deutschland gibt es aber nur Insektenfresser. Nach momentanem Stand sind es 24 Fledermausarten die in unseren Nachthimmeln jagen. Die kleinste hier lebende Art ist die streichholzschachtelgroße Mückenfledermaus, die es gerade einmal auf 3-8 Gramm Körpergewicht bringt, bis hin zum Großen Mausohr welches eine Flügelspannweite von über 40 cm erreicht.

 

Der Name Fledermaus kommt vom mittelhochdeutschen Vledermus und bedeutet soviel wie “Flattermaus”. Und obwohl es keine Mäuse sind, sehen sie doch einer Maus sehr ähnlich, zumindest das Gesicht. Da bereits im althochdeutschen die Fledermäuse mit “Mustro” (mausähnliches Tier) bezeichnet wurden, hat sich der Name erhalten, auch wenn Fledermäuse eigentlich mit Maulwurf und Igel verwandt sind. Die biologische Ordnung der Fledertiere heißt “Chiroptera”, was aus dem griechischen stammt und so viel bedeutet wie “Handflügler”. Denn Fledermäuse fliegen mit den Händen. Anders als bei den Vögeln sind ihre Finger und Mittelhandknochen nicht zurückgebildet, sondern voll in die Flughaut integriert. Auf diese Weise ist der gesamte Flügel sehr beweglich und der Flug der Fledermäuse dadurch sehr viel manövrierfähiger als der der Vögel. Mit Hilfe ihres raffinierten Echo-Ortungssystems können sie sich auch in völliger Dunkelheit zurecht finden und Beute jagen. Ausgestoßene Ultraschallwellen werden von Objekten reflektiert und dienen als imaginäre Umgebungskarte. Das Ortungssystem arbeitet so genau, dass sie sogar Objekte erkennen können, die kleiner als 0,2 Millimeter sind. Auf diese Weise erbeuten die emsigen Jäger unzählige Insekten. Eine einzelne Wasserfledermaus fängt etwa bis zu 5000 Mücken pro Nacht und eine Kolonie von 500 Großen Mausohren verputzen unglaubliche eine Tonne Käfer pro Sommer. Da Fledermäuse im Gegensatz zu Eulen kein Restlicht benötigen um sich zu orientieren, sind sie in der Lage Lebensräume wie Höhlen zu erschließen, in denen sich nachaktive Vögel nicht mehr zurecht finden. Somit gehen sie möglichen Fressfeinden aus dem Weg.

Fledermäuse hängen wenn sie sich ausruhen auf dem Kopf, und dies ohne Kopfschmerzen zu bekommen: Ihr nervöses System ist daran angepasst, dass den Tieren das Blut nicht in den Kopf sackt, wenn sie sich von der Decke hängen lassen. Fledermäuse können ihre Körpertemperatur regulieren, um so Energie zu sparen. So fallen sie fast täglich in eine Tageslethargie bei der die Körpertemperatur auch mal auf 15°C abfallen kann. Im Winterschlaf kann die Körpertemperatur sogar auf 1°C abfallen. Während des Winterschlafes kommt es auch meist zu der Begattung. Männchen wachen kurz auf und kopulieren mit der Dame ihrer Wahl. Romantik sieht anders aus. Damit das Jungtier nicht im Winter geboren wird, kommt es zu einer verzögerten Befruchtung: der Samen der Männchen kann mehrere Monate im Fortpflanzungstrakt der Weibchen aufbewahrt werden. Erst bei günstiger Witterung beginnt der Fötus in der Gebärmutter zu wachsen. Nach Beendigung des Winterschlafes, etwa Ende März, wandern die Fledermäuse in ihre Sommerquartiere. Dabei suchen sich die Männchen meist Tagesquartiere, die als Ausgangspunkt für die Jagd dienen. Die Weibchen finden sich zu sogenannten Wochenstuben zusammen, in denen die Jungtiere geboren und gemeinsam aufgezogen werden

 

Fledermäuse können sehr alt werden. Die älteste bekannte Fledermaus ist 40 Jahre alt gewesen. Vergleicht man das mit Maus oder Hamster, die eine ähnliche Größe haben ist das enorme Alter wirklich erstaunlich und zeigt wie gut die Tiere an ihren Lebensraum angepasst sind.

 

Da Fledermäuse gerade mal ein Junges pro Jahr zur Welt bringen, können sich ihre Bestände kaum von veränderten Umweltbedingungen erholen. So fallen aktuell viele Tiere, den wie Pilze aus dem Boden sprießenden Windkraftanlagen zum Opfer. Zum einen sind sie mit ihrem Ortungssystem nicht in der Lage die rasant drehenden Rotorblätter einzuschätzen, zum anderen reicht oft schon der enorme Luftdruck der Propeller um die Organe der filigranen Tiere zu zerquetschen. Als Lebensraum nutzen Fledermäuse in unseren Breiten, wie kaum ein anderes wildlebendes Säugetier, unserer Häuser. Manche Arten sind sogar darauf angewiesen. Dies führt natürlich immer wieder zu Konflikten, weshalb der NABU die Aktion “Fledermäuse Willkommen!” ins Leben gerufen hat. Auch ich engagiere mich als ehrenamtlicher Fledermausbotschafter für den Schutz der liebenswerten Tiere. Mehr Infos unter: www.fledermäuse-willkommen.de


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Das sonderbare Neunauge


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Dienstag, Juni 12th, 2012

Photo courtesy of Jeremy Monroe, Fresh Waters Illustrated.

Das Neunauge ist schon ein wahrlich sonderbares Wesen. Unlängst wurde das Tier zum Fisch des Jahres 2012 gewählt. Und das obwohl es zoologisch gesehen gar nicht mal zu den Fischen gehört, sondern zu den sogenannten Rundmäulern. Denn im Gegensatz zu Fischen haben Neunaugen keine Kiefer sondern ein rundliches Maul welches mit rasiermesserscharfen Hornzähnen ausgestattet ist. Mit 500 Millionen Jahren ist das Neunauge das älteste lebende Wirbeltier. Seit so langer Zeit hat sich dieses „lebende Fossil“ im Körperbau kaum verändert. Es hat einen bis zu 75 cm langen, aalartigen Körper, der mit einem flossenartigen Rücken- und Schwanzsaum besetzt ist. Sein Name rührt daher, dass sieben Kiemen-Öffnungen, Nasenloch und Auge von der Seite zusammen wie neun Augen erscheinen.

 

In Deutschland gibt es vier Neunaugenarten: Bach- und Flussneunauge, Ukrainisches Neunauge sowie das Meerneunauge. Neunaugen laichen im Oberlauf von Bächen und Flüssen. Sie benötigen hierfür kiesigen Untergrund, der von kühlem, sauerstoffreichem Wasser durchströmt wird. Nach dem Schlüpfen vergraben sich die augenlosen Larven, Querder genannt, in sandigen Abschnitten. Der Kopf bleibt frei und filtert feine Nahrungspartikel wie Kleinlebewesen oder Pflanzenteilchen aus dem Wasser. Das wurmartige Larvenstadium ist die längste Phase im Leben der Neunaugen. Es dauert mindestens fünf bis sieben Jahre. Dann verwandeln sie sich schlagartig innerhalb von erstaunlichen drei Wochen zu einem vollständigen Fisch.

 

Während Bachneunaugen das ganze Leben im Süßwasser verbringen, handelt es sich beim Fluss- und Meerneunauge um Wanderarten. Direkt nach der Umwandlung ziehen die erwachsenen Tiere ins Meer. Dort ernähren sie sich parasitisch, indem sie sich an Fischen festsaugen und mit ihrem Rundmaul die Haut aufraspeln. Dabei nehmen sie Blut und Fleischstücke auf. Zum Teil bohren sie sich sogar bis in die Körperhöhle des Opfers vor. Durch spezielle Substanzen in ihrem Speichel hemmen sie die Blutgerinnung, weshalb bei angegriffenen Fischen keine Blutgerinnsel entstehen. Forscher versuchen, diese Substanz aus dem Speichel zu extrahieren, um sie in der Medizin einzusetzen und Blutgerinnsel aufzulösen. Größere, gesunde Fische überleben solche Angriffe meist und behalten nur typische kreisförmige Narben zurück, kleinere Arten jedoch, Jungtiere und kranke Fische können daran sterben. Größere Neunaugen greifen vereinzelt in Küstennähe sogar Menschen an und saugen deren Blut. Die Bisse sind jedoch für den Menschen nicht giftig.

 

Nach wenigen Jahren wandern die Neunaugen wieder in den Oberlauf ihres Geburtsgewässers zurück, um zu laichen. Während der Wanderung in die Süßwassergebiete bildet sich der Darm zurück und die Nahrungsaufnahme erlischt komplett. Nach dem Laichakt sterben die Tiere dann an Entkräftung.


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Echse ohne Beine – Die Blindschleiche


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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 434

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 435

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 436

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 437

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 438

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 439

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 440

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 441

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 442

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Freitag, Mai 18th, 2012

BlindschleicheBei einem Frühlingsspaziergang schlängelt sich plötzlich ein etwa 50 Zentimeter langes, braunes in bronze bis kupfertönen glänzendes Wesen mit langgestrecktem Körper vor mir her. Im ersten Moment denke ich „Oh, eine Schlange!“, doch bei genauerer Betrachtung des Tieres, werde ich eines besseren belehrt:

Es handelt sich hierbei um eine Blindschleiche, eine Echsenart deren Vorfahren einmal Vierbeiner waren. Die Schleichen haben aber im Laufe ihrer Entwicklung ihre Beine stark bis ganz reduziert. Würde man eine Blindschleiche röntgen, könnte man die noch vorhandener Becken- und Schulterknochen an der Wirbelsäule feststellen. Anders als Schlangen haben Blindschleichen aber bewegliche und verschließbare Augenlider. Zum Züngeln müssen sie das Maul leicht öffnen, denn anders als Schlangen besitzen sie keine Lücke in der Oberlippe. Blindschleichen bewegen sich langsamer als Schlangen und ihr Schlängeln wirkt steif und weniger agil, denn ihnen fehlen die durchgehende Bauchschuppen mit dazugehörendem Muskelapparat, der es der Schlange erlaubt, sich in feinste Bodenunebenheiten zu verhaken und davon abzustoßen.

Dieses Missverständnis spiegelt sich sogar im wissenschaftlichen Gattungsnamen wieder, Angius fragilis. Angius bedeutet Schlange. Der zweite Teil ihres lateinischen Namens, fragilis, bedeutet zerbrechlich und deutet darauf, dass Blindschleichen leicht zerbrechliche Wesen sind. Ein unbedachter Griff und die mühelos zu fangenden Tiere brechen entzwei. Während sich das längere Ende hastig davonschlängelt, verbleibt das kürzere heftig zappelnd in der geschlossenen Hand. Mit diesem Trick gelingt es in Gefahr geratenen Blindschleichen oftmals, ihre Feinde zu verwirren und ihnen zu entkommen. Möglich wird dies durch mehrere Sollbruchstellen, die es den Tieren erlauben, den Schwanz abzuwerfen. Dieser wächst alsbald wieder nach; allerdings nur als verkürzter, kugeliger Stumpf.

Ein anderer weit verbreiteter Irrglaube ist, dass die Blindschleiche blind sei. Ihr Name wird jedoch auf das Althochdeutsche „Plintslîcho“ zurückgeführt, was so viel wie „blendender Schleicher“ bedeutet und sich auf das bronzefarbene Glänzen der glatten Schuppenhaut sowie die typische Fortbewegung bezieht.

Die Blindschleiche ist das häufigste heimische Reptil. Sie kommt sowohl in relativ kühlen Lebensräumen, als auch in sehr trockenwarmen Regionen vor. Man findet sie an Wegrändern und Bahndämmen, unter Hecken und Steinen, im Laub und im Komposthaufen. Das liegt an ihrer heimlichen Lebensweise. Denn die harmlose Echse hat ihren Feinden wenig entgegenzusetzen, sie beißt nicht einmal richtig. Stattdessen setzt sie auf Tarnung und ein Leben im Verborgenen. Tagsüber versteckt sie sich meist. Auf die Jagd geht sie in der Abenddämmerung und in den frühen Morgenstunden. Leibspeise der Blindschleiche sind Regenwürmer, Nacktschnecken und unbehaarte Raupen. Züngelnd nimmt sie Witterung auf, pirscht sich an ihr Opfer heran, packt es mit dem nach hinten gekrümmten Gebiss und verschluckt es im Ganzen.

Werden Blindschleichen jedoch von ihren vielen Freßfeinden verschont, können sie ein Alter von 50 Jahren erreichen.


Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

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Die schönen Augen der Frühlingsnacht


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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 439

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 433

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 434

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 435

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 436

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 437

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 438

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 439

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 440

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 441

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 442

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 443

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 444

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 447
Freitag, Mai 18th, 2012

Die schönen Augen der Frühlingsnacht,
Sie schauen so tröstend nieder:
Hat dich die Liebe so kleinlich gemacht,
Die Liebe, sie hebt dich wieder.

Auf grüner Linde sitzt und singt
Die süße Philomele;
Wie mir das Lied zur Seele dringt,
So dehnt sich wieder die Seele.

Heinrich Heine (1797-1856)


Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 43

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 43

Raben – gefiederte Schlaumeier


Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 107

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 109

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 111

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 112

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 411

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 428

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 429

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 430

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 431

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 432

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 433

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 434

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 435

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 436

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 437

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 438

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 439

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 440

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 441

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 442

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 443

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 444

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 447

Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-includes/functions.php on line 35

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 411

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 428

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 429

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 430

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 431

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 432

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 433

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 434

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 435

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 436

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 437

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 438

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 439

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 440

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /kunden/136280_56457/webseiten/old/spektivblick/wp-content/plugins/qtranslate/qtranslate_core.php on line 441

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Samstag, April 14th, 2012

Corvus CoraxAls Todes und Unheilsbote war er verrufen. Sein Erscheinen galt als böses Omen. Flog er dreimal übers Dach würde jemand sterben. Sein krächzendes Rufen war die Stimme des Satans, der die Seele der Menschen rief. Er war ein fliegender Dämon. Wenn eine Rabenschar übers Feld flog, legten die Bauern ihre Arbeit nieder und gingen schleunigst nach Hause, denn was sie pflanzen oder ernten wollten, war für diesen Tag verdorben und verflucht. Er flog den Hexen voraus und brachte ihnen Nachrichten. Doch nicht nur zu früheren Zeiten, sondern auch heute noch sorgen ihr pechschwarzes Gefieder, ihre krächzenden Stimmen und ihr scharenhaftes Auftreten dafür, dass viele Menschen ein schlechtes Bild von ihnen haben. Dieses negative Image spiegelt sich auch in alltäglichen Redewendungen wie „rabenschwarz“, „Rabeneltern“ oder „Unglücksrabe“ wieder.

 

Doch Rabenvögel sind in Wirklichkeit hochintelligente, sehr gesellige und soziallebende Tiere: sie können Werkzeuge zum Nahrungserwerb nutzen, sind bemerkenswerte Flugkünstler und beherrschen neben ihren eigen Rufen auffallend viele „Fremdsprachen“. Raben gehören zwar zu den Singvögeln, singen aber nicht, können aber andere Tierstimmen verblüffend echt nachahmen. So kann man etwa Kolkraben hören die Hundegebäll, Schweinegrunzen oder Pferdewiehern nachahmen oder menschliche Laute wie Rülpsen oder Schnalzen. Damit täuschen sie andere Tiere. Auch führen sie sich untereinander gerne „am Schnabel herum“. Wenn es zum Beispiel um das Horten von Nahrung geht, legen sie Scheinverstecke an, um nicht von einem Nachbarn beraubt zu werden. Raben sind gar in der Lag ihre Artgenossen anzuschwindeln. Findet ein pfiffiger Rabe etwa ein Stück Aas, so gaukelt dieser seinen Artgenossen vor, dass dieses verdorben sei und er daran jämmerlich krepiere. Verlassen die abgeschreckten Artgenossen die Futterstelle, kommt es zu einer schlagartigen Spontanheilung des Verkösters und er macht sich munter weiter ans Fressen. Geht es aber wie bei den Dohlen oder Saatkrähen um das Wohl der gesamten Kolonie, halten die Vögel fest zusammen. Feinde werden gemeinsam vertrieben, Jungtiere oder kranke Vögel von der gesamten Sippschaft versorgt.

 

Nebel- und Rabenkrähen werfen Nüsse auf die Fahrbahn, um sie durch Autoreifen knacken zu lassen. Dabei nutzen manche sogar Kreuzungen mit Ampeln, um die Nüsse bequem in den Rotphasen aufsammeln zu können. Kolkraben sind die größten Singvögel der Welt. Sie sind mit einer Flügelspannweite von über 1,30 Meter sogar größer als der Mäusebussard. Ertönt ein Schuss im Wald, so fliehen alle Vögel, nur der Kolkrabe fliegt in Richtung der Schussquelle. Er hat gelernt, dass bei einem Schuss meist ein Jäger ein Tier erlegt hat und dies eine mögliche Futterquelle darstellt. Häufig sieht man sie auch als Begleiter von Wölfen oder anderen Raubtieren, um diesen dann, mit ihrer berüchtigten Frechheit, in Gruppen die erlegte Beute abzujagen. Elstern erkennen sich im Spiegel, was eine Voraussetzung für viele komplexe Denkvorgänge ist. Nur Menschenaffen und Hunde erreichen ebenfalls diese Stufe. Saatkrähen warfen in einem Experiment so lange Steine in ein Wasserglas, bis sie an einen sonst unerreichbaren Wurm gelangten. Dohlen, der Vogel des Jahres 2012, haben ein hochentwickeltes Familien- und Gesellschaftsleben. Sie können die Ranghöhe jedes einzelnen Mitglieds ihrer Kolonie einschätzen. Tannenhäher legen tausende Verstecke mit Wintervorräten an, die sie selbst durch tiefe Schneedecken erfolgreich wieder ausgraben. Eine enorme Gedächtnisleistung. Eichelhäher lassen sich in Ameisenhaufen nieder, um sich mit ätzender Ameisensäure besprühen zu lassen. Ein effektives Mittel gegen Parasiten.

 

Im Londoner Tower lebt seit jeher eine Kolonie von Kolkraben. Ein Volksglaube besagt, dass das englische Empire untergehen würde, wenn die Tower-Raben nicht mehr das Gebäude beschützen. Auf Grund dessen werden die Raben gefüttert und sogar durch einen eigens dafür zuständigen „Ravenmaster“ beschützt.

 

Rabenvögel, Meisterwerke der Natur, kein Hexenwerk.

 Corvus_corax_head_profile


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Das Nachtpfauenauge


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Montag, März 5th, 2012

saturni_1tnDas Kleine Nachtpfauenauge ist mit einer Flügelspannweite von bis 8,5 Zentimeter einer der größte Nachtfalter unserer Gefilde. Der farbenprächtige Falter wurde jüngst zum Schmetterling des Jahres 2012 gewählt. Seinen Namen verdankt das Nachtpfauenauge seinen vier ausgeprägten augenähnlichen Flecken auf den Flügeln. Mit diesen Augenflecken können sie Feinde   abschrecken. Öffnet das Nachtpfauenauge schlagartig seine Flügel, schaut der verdutzte Fressfeind urplötzlich in riesige, furchteinflößende „Augen“ und ergreift die Flucht. Die Flügel der Männchen sind kontrastreich orange, weiß, schwarz und meist auch rosa gefärbt. Die Weibchen sind unauffälliger gräulich, aber deutlich größer als die Männchen.

 

Erwachsene Nachtpfauenaugen nehmen keine Nahrung auf, sie haben noch nicht mal funktionsfähige Mundwerkzeuge. Daher leben die Falter nach ihrem Schlüpfen auch nur wenige Tage, in denen sie sich fortpflanzen müssen. Um sich rasch zu finden, sendet das Weibchen spezielle Sexuallockstoffe aus, welche das Männchen mit seinen riesigen, antennenartigen Fühlern kilometerweit wahrnehmen kann. Die Männchen sind tagaktiv, im Gegensatz zu den nachtaktiven Weibchen. Da die Weibchen tagsüber nur sitzen und nicht davonfliegen, ist ihre Ortung nur eine Frage der Zeit.

 

Nur als Raupe nimmt das Nachtpfauenauge Nahrung auf und lebt als Falter von diesen Fettreserven. Die Entwicklung vom Ei bis zur Verpuppung der Raupe dauert etwa 10-12 Wochen. Vor der Verpuppung spinnen die Raupen einen sehr festen, braunen und eiförmigen Kokon. Am einen Ende ist eine Reuse aus starren Borsten hinter einer runden Öffnung platziert. Durch diese können Feinde nicht eindringen, die fertig entwickelten Falter aber leicht schlüpfen. Die Puppen überwintern bis zum folgenden Frühjahr. Einige Puppen benötigen auch zwei Winter bis zum Schlupf. Diese werden auch „überliegende“ Puppen genannt und sichern so raffinierterweise den Fortbestand der Art, falls einmal die gesamte Jahres-Population durch Krankheiten oder bei klimatisch sehr ungünstigen Bedingungen sterben sollte. Futterpflanzen des Kleinen Nachtpfauenauges sind etwa Brombeere, Himbeere, Heidelbeere, Schlehe und Wiesensalbei.
Das Kleine Nachtpfauenauge ist in Mittel- und Nordeuropa weit verbreitet. Sein Lebensraum sind naturnahe offene Landschaften oder verwilderte Gärten. Als Folge des fortschreitenden Landschaftsverbrauchs ist der Bestand des Kleinen Nachtpfauenauges in einigen Regionen Deutschlands jedoch stark zurückgegangen.

 

Das kleine Nachtpfauenauge hat auch noch eine große Schwester, dass Große Nachtpfauenauge, oder auch Wiener Nachtpfauenauge gennant. Dieser Falter erreicht gar eine Flügelspannweite von bis zu 160 Millimetern und ist somit der größte mitteleuropäischen Schmetterling. Er lebt jedoch nur in Südeuropa.