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Spektivblick
Dominik Eulberg – what it’s all about.


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(Deutsch) Lichtblick
 
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(Deutsch) Natur

Cormorant – Bird of the Year 2010

The Cormorant has been voted “Bird of the year 2010” in purpose to promote for the protection of the master fisher, which – after its return to German lakes, rivers an coasts – is being shot and chased away in thousands. Every year 15.000 Cormorants are killed.

Cormorant | Photo of Fritz Berger

Cormorant | Photo of Fritz Berger

For many decades the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)  was rarely  present in Germany – the result of intensive pursuit by fishermen. Only due to the consequent protection by the Council Directive 97/409/EEC on the conservation of wild birds – this very day approximately 24.000 breeder couples live in Germany. Nevertheless, professional fisher tried to  convince politicians and representatives of the administration of allegedly massive economic losses and that the cormorant poses a real threat to single fish. But cormorants do not kill off natural fish population and do not endanger fish species in a long term. It is rather necessary to fight for an ecological improvement of our waters, so that all fish and water birds have sufficient space for living.

The birds which reach a size of 80 to 100cm and weights two to three kg prefer catching fish which they can capture without any great effort – they are nutrition opportunists. For this,  particularly common and economically unimportant “whitings”, so as roaches, breams and other small fish are on the menu. Some regional problems can occur at fish farms because of the cormorant. In this case solutions of how to avoid economic losses without endangering the natural population of the bird again, must be found all together on-site. For example fishponds can be protected efficiently by spanning wide-meshed and well visible wire gauzes over them and by chasing the birds away by using optical and acoustical tools.

The cormorant, whose  green eyes remind one of jewels, is a master in diving. He is capable of diving up to 90 seconds and up to a depth of 30 meters, thus it gains 300 to 500 gram of fish every day. Compared to other water birds, whose feathers are greased, cormorants need to dry their soaked feathers by the sun and the wind after every dive to be able to fly again – a unique behaviour in the birds world. For this process tue cormorant spreads its wings in a characteristically posture at a place of rest.

In tue past in China and in Japan cormorants have been tamed to catch fish. Even this very day the cormorant fishery is practised locally. A ring around their neck hinders them of swallowing the fish, so they disgorge them on the boat after catching them. The fisherman splits single fish for the birds which are held as pets or as farm animals.

Commonly cormorants nestle in great rookeries on trees. Their acid excrement leads to a quick extinction of these trees and so it marks the characteristical picture of a colony. Their excrement, called guano, is locally used as an artificial manure. Large rookeries produce oodles of guano over the years. Consisting of the rests of the fish meal, the guano is enriched in Nitrogen and in Phosphorous which are very important elements for the vegetation. Yet the Inca and other South American peoples used the guano in purpose of increasing the harvest. In the middle of the 19th century some million tons of guano were transported to Europe, especially from the South American west coast. Since not only guano has been recovered but also eggs and birds were served as food for the workers, the population has almost become extinct.

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8 Responses to “Cormorant – Bird of the Year 2010” (Click to hide)»

  1. maxwell smart Says:

    Freut mich zu hören, dass der Kormoranbestand am wachsen ist!

    Man hat doch immer wieder den Eindruck, der Mensch sucht sich lieber Sündenböcke, als sich an die eigene Nase zu fassen und sich, wie du ganz richtig gesagt hast, um die von Menschenhand verursachte Verschmutzung der Gewässer und das daraus resultierende Abnehmen bestimmter, nicht zahlloser, Fischarten zu kümmern.

    Lieben Gruß vom Ammersee!

  2. maxwell smart Says:

    edit: mit “nicht zahllos” meinte ich “nicht wenige”, hab mich bissl falsch ausgedrückt ;-)

  3. Max Says:

    Hallo Dominik,

    bei den Zahlenangaben wäre es übersichtlicher die 15 000 geschossenen Kormorane nicht mit den 24000 BrutPAAREN zu vergleichen. Als Vogelfreund kennst Du doch bestimmt auch die Anzahl der noch nicht brütenden Vögel die 2,8mal der Anzahl der Brutvögel beträgt. Also zusammen wohl 134 400 Vögel in Deutschland.
    Kennst Du die Zahlen der Wintergäste?

    Max

  4. Max Says:

    Hallo Maxwell.
    Du schreibst: „Freut mich zu hören, dass der Kormoranbestand am wachsen ist!“ Hast Du genaue Zahlen, ich hatte letztens auf der NABU – Hompage gefunden der Bestand hätte sich stabilisiert und würde nicht weiter zunehmen?
    Das Diagramm:
    http://www.nabu.de/aktionenundprojekte/vogeldesjahres/2010-kormoran/Informationen/11607.html
    zeigt doch einen gleich bleibenden Bestand von knapp 20.000 Brutpaaren seit ca. 2001.

    Haben die Kormorane auch genug zu fressen, gerade jetzt im Winter wenn alles zugefroren ist?

    Max

  5. Tom Says:

    Hallo Dominik,

    du schreibst Kormorane „gefährden langfristig auch keine Fischarten“ – damit hast Du Recht, denn sie gefährden die Bestände kurzfristig. Der Einfluss des Kormorans auf die Aschenbestände in Thüringen ist so zusammengefasst:

    “In den meisten Gewässern ist die Äschenpopulation an den Rand der Reproduktionsfähigkeit gedrängt bzw. sie muss sogar als zusammengebrochen betrachtet werden. In weiten Strecken Thüringer Fließgewässer ist die Populationsdichte der Äsche deutlich unter das Niveau von vor 1990 gesunken Mit dem Totalverlust der Art in vielen Gewässern aller drei Thüringer Flusseinzugsgebiete muss in nächster Zeit gerechnet werden.“

    @ Max: Das Diagramm auf der NABU Seite ist in der Voransicht abgeschnitten, wenn du den Link folgst ist der Zuwachs zu sehen….

    Tom

  6. Martin Schlöegel Says:

    Hier in Beispiel für die nicht vorhandenen Schäden:

    http://www.sachsen-anhalt-abc.de/news/index.php?rubrik=1&
    news=65584&typ=1

    Die Helme war noch vor 15 Jahren bekannt für große Äschen, Barben
    und Barschbestände. Verschwunden sind inzwischen Hecht und Flussbarsch. Die bereits im Jahre 2000 stark gefährdeten Äschen sind praktisch ausgestorben. Nur unter einer Straßenbrücke konnten noch vier Exemplare nachgewiesen werden. Auch der Barbenbestand ist auf einen lächerlichen Bestand von 42 Tieren geschrumpft. Und das alles, obwohl in den letzetn 15 Jahren insgesamt 19 Großprojekte zur Renaturierung an der Helme durchjgeführt wurden. So erfolgten Aufweitungen des Flussbettes, der Bau von Fischaufstiegsanlagen und der Anschluss von Altarmen an das Helmesystem.
    … ein durchschnittlicher Kormoranbestand von 19 Tieren an der Helme frisst in einem Jahr ebenfalls den gesamten natürlichen Ertrag wieder auf !

  7. Jo Says:

    Wie soll ein Teichwirt (in Franken), der 7000 Fische in seinen Teich einsetzt und nur 1000 Fische wieder fängt bitte überleben?
    @ Maxwell: Sein wir ehrlich, alle die in NABU oder sonstigen Vereinen sind, die gehen abends in die Wirtschaft und haun sich einen Karpfen hinter die Kiemen. Aber darüber nachdenken, was es für eine Schweinearbeit ist diesen Fisch aufzuzüchten, da dran denkt ihr nicht. Ich finde es eine Frechheit gegenüber allen Teichwirten, dass der Kormoran als NICHT! natürlicher Bewohner auch noch zum Vogel des Jahres erklärt wird. Ich würde hier garnicht schreiben, wenn es vor dem “Comeback” des Kormorans nicht anders gewesen wäre. Normal ist eine Schwund von rund 10 %, nach dem Einzug des Kormorans sind es rund 80 %.
    Ach ja und das Netz für einen 48 Hektar großen Weiher will ich mal sehn^^

  8. Novoline Trick Says:

    Tjo, die Sachverhalte konnen so simpel sein! Besten Dank fur die Erlauterungen :)

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